Thursday, April 19, 2018





                  The Dysgenics Investigation 


           Race, Science & The Human Genome Project

                        (The Eugenics Investigation)
                                 

                                                 (Akoniti)


                                 Edited by: Michael James Ross

                                   Monsantoinvestigation.com


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{The following article will detail group based science, along with current news and technology on the Human Genome Project.}

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Chapter 1: Race & IQ
Chapter 2: Race & Sports
Chapter 3: Science & Invention
Chapter 4: Genetic disorders and diseases (Dysgenics)
Chapter 5: The 5 Percent Nation of Islam & Masonry


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 Definition: Akoniti - to withdraw

If athletes wanted to compete at the Olympics, they had to arrive at Olympia one month before the start of the games. A similar obligatory training period probably existed at other major games as well. This did not only give all athletes the possibility to train in a similar manner, but it also offered the opportunity to assess the strength of their contestants. If they observed that they would be chanceless, they could withdraw. Withdrawal was preferred to the disgrace of being defeated. At the Olympic games it was forbidden to withdraw once the games had started, though allowed during the preparatory weeks. If an athlete did this anyway, as Theagenes once did , he was fined.
Sometimes one athlete commanded so much respect, that all the other competitors withdrew from the contest. This was called a victory ‘akoniti’, which can be translated as ‘without dust’. This meant that an athlete from a combat sport won without entering the dusty sandpit where the matches took place. In running events, this kind of victory was extremely rare.
To us it seems rather weak to win without having to fight, but for the Greeks this was very honorable, for it meant that one commanded respect among all participants. The great champions mentioned this proudly in their victory list on stone.

 http://ancientolympics.arts.kuleuven.be/eng/TD015EN.html


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Definition: Akoniti


 Honorific technical term in the language of the agon: ‘without a fight’, literally ‘dust-free’, i.e. not required to sprinkle the body with fine sand after oiling, as laid down in the athlete's regimen (Philostr. De Gymnastica 56). Akoniti victories occurred when only one athlete had entered (e.g. Paus. 5,21,14), or, more often, when opponents withdrew out of fear or when they had no prospect of victory. This occurred most often in combat sports, but not only in wrestling, as Philostratus indicates …

 http://referenceworks.brillonline.com/entries/brill-s-new-pauly/akoniti-e111980


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Chapter 1: Race & IQ

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 Prof. Philippe Rushton - "Latest Research on Race" -

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t1mgrTGeDPM


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JP Rushton and David Suzuki debate at the University of Western Ontario, February 8th, 1989

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i9FGHtfnYWY

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Suzuki Admits Reality of Racial Heredity

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DSgG6QxbtHY

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Greenpeace founder slams David Suzuki - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NP5eXtCIKuY

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FULL EPISODE: Ezra Levant confronts David Suzuki - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6nARIP90l9Q

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Race, IQ, Genetics, and Denial -  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AE9ONE0LhcU

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Race and IQ

 https://isgp-studies.com/miscellaneous/race-and-iq/global-iq-scores-black-white-asian-hispanic-arab-large.png


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Average IQ by Country


 https://ourworldindata.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/ourworldindata_average-iq-by-country-v2.png   ( https://ourworldindata.org/intelligence )

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Race and IQ

 Aug 8, 2016

 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bNuB-yYDZpM


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Dr Frances Welsing debate william shockley 1974

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-ZXWaps2Z2g

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Firing Line with William F. Buckley Jr.: Shockley's Thesis - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7JOIqkh2ms8 ( Shockley was the inventor of the transistor.)

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  African Language and the African Mind - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WAoNhacojmM&list=PLgE7CmyxsOa6eETOiyrOpbOoKRnO-Df7i

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 African American Detroit test scores are as low as cavemen anchorman suggests Razing Detroit - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9dBbZFXr05U&index=9&list=PLgE7CmyxsOa6eETOiyrOpbOoKRnO-Df7i

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Racial segregation in American schools. Return to the 1960s https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pmrtJD9kT4I

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Kids Talk About Segregation https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Sff2N8rez_8

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Let's Bring Back Segregated Schools https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uN81fqjZf7g

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ASIAN STUDENTS DROP OUT!!!!! - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e9_XQDuw2II

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 Brilliant Tommy Sotomayor about African Americans in USA -  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gYKjtWEsOF8

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Tommy Sotomayor on the fat & loud black woman stereotype - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SlSQAmSqSik


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Africans Have Never Built a Major Enduring City in 3,000 Years - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9ZkE3xB8o8A

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 Pastor Manning No African History John 8: 32 - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JYrrZpV0Sjk

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Black People Don't Give A Damn About Black People https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jSoI39YD2a8

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NIGERIAN LEADERS & BLACKS PEOPLE DOESN'T KNOW HOW TO RUN A NATION https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4wBVprLojEQ

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Chicago is a Little Rwanda - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_TNPFwrVgIA

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The Black Thang Ain't Workin - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RBbFW0kXyvI

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We Need to Talk About the African American Holocaust  - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-fPMSqebjxg

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The Mexicans are Coming - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WObx-uv72-E

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Africa or Mexico  - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7C9VZOsyjLo

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IQ, African Americans & Genetic Enhancement - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KC-JGWSmZV0

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Don lemon calls Larry Elder an Uncle Tom, Gets DESTROYED by Larry - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pf-_OyYmhpc

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Ben Shapiro Exposes Black LIES Matter - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=izeGpciIfNc

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Black Celebrities who hate Black Lives Matter - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dx-3pL2OQlw

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 Black Lives Matter leader shot dead - https://nypost.com/2018/02/07/black-lives-matter-leader-shot-dead/

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The Politics of South Park: Immigration - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uW3JxUZpiYk

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Chris Rock Bring The Pain Stand Up Comedy - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tJFS5AFcNtw

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Stefan Molyneux Low IQ Cultures Don't Mix With High IQ Societies https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SFERsUXjf-I&index=11&list=PLgE7CmyxsOa6eETOiyrOpbOoKRnO-Df7i

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Race Controversy in "The Bell Curve" - Ethnic Differences in Cognitive Ability https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y2MtavwbxZY

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 John Derbyshire - The Great Encounters: When Races First Met (AmRen Conference, 2013)  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CeHFBzhR4vM


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Douglas Whitman: "The Evolutionary and Biological Reality of Race"


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jeb09GS7ids

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The Cost of Ignoring Group Differences - 'Race Realists are Modern Day Galileos'


 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WH5DsBXTtHg

{Life is cruel and unfair to some individuals}.

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Prof. Raymond Wolters - Fifty Years Since Brown v. Board of Education (AmRen Conference, 2004)


 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i00Ylu9prgU

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Prof. Raymond Wolters - Closing the Gaps: Education Reform Since the 1950's (AmRen Conference, 2011)

 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qzxWoDAAejo

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Don lemon calls Larry Elder an Uncle Tom, Gets DESTROYED by Larry

 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pf-_OyYmhpc

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Treating Unequals as Equals - Egalitarianism with Race Realism 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JV7cpBgULds


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Prof. Philippe Rushton 'The American Race Dilemma in World Perspective'

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SsuFwcM6mvg


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Why White Males Are High Achievers

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nYI2QgmXvgw


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"Genetic-Similarity Theory and Ethnic Nationalism" - Prof. Philippe Rushton

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LuxqrF1rykE


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Race Differences in Brain Size - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xvV1sSZxTSU&index=3&list=PLgE7CmyxsOa6eETOiyrOpbOoKRnO-Df7i

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 The 'Tragic' Reason for Black/ White IQ Difference - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Cphq4DZfFLw

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 "Race Differences in Intelligence" & "The Biological Reality of Race"  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2Te_o5WL-UQ

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 Laurence Steinberg | Why Some Races Outperform Others https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aGx17P_O2LI

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Fear of Race Realism and the Denial of Human Differences 1/3 - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K2sUW8q7uWI&index=6&list=PLgE7CmyxsOa6eETOiyrOpbOoKRnO-Df7i

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Fear of Race Realism and the Denial of Human Differences 2/3 - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TLhGgj4T1ww

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Fear of Race Realism and the Denial of Human Differences 3/3 - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mMdIG5BPgMw

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Steven Pinker on Swear Words - "Race is Very Taboo" - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EyiH-bpr5SE

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1 of 4 Steven Pinker - Jews, Genes and Intelligence - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1GexZF5VIMU

2 of 4 Steven Pinker - Jews, Genes and Intelligence - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MkTyWYcxVIA

3 of 4 Steven Pinker - Jews, Genes and Intelligence - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rDM7yQVU4ZE

4 of 4 Steven Pinker - Jews, Genes and Intelligence - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uz5igS5n720

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Richard Dawkins & Steven Pinker Literally Stand Up for Reason & Science 

 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PAY3MeVG6AM

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Race & IQ - Demographic Effects on National High IQ

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OozeGZQwyBM

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Race and intelligence


 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Race_and_intelligence

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Richard Lynn, "Why Are the Jews So Smart" (PFS 2013)

 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Yuq1gu2CEm8

 {Why it it the Jews have an IQ of over 105 on average, yet many Muslims who have an IQ of around 80, yet the Muslims get hundreds of times more land than the group of people that are much smarter.}
{Jews were raped by the Romans, the Romans were considered the people with the highest IQ in Europe, with all of the main institutions and sciences in Europe.}

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Race & IQ - Jewish 115 Average IQ - AmRen https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fgiGg8im9Vk

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Evolution of Jewish Intelligence https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lj4cArZxGpI

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Ben Shapiro - Why Jews Are Successful https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vZTjr9_SA9A

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Race Differences in Newborn Behavior https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vAAbDzJhoD8

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10 Smartest Countries https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ECj-xfOBwMo

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Race and Intelligence special, science's last taboo https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U9LZ7-69HEE

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Race and IQ — Sam Harris and Charles Murray Set the Record Straight on Intelligence Testing https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1YfEoxU82us

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IQ of Serbian Gypsies


General mental ability in South Asians: Data from three Roma (Gypsy) communities in Serbia

J. Philippe Rushton et al.

Abstract

To examine whether the Roma (Gypsy) population of Serbia, like other South Asian population groups, average lower than Europeans on g, the general factor of intelligence, we tested 323 16- to 66-year-olds (111 males; 212 females) in three different communities over a two-year-period on the Raven's Colored and/or Standard Progressive Matrices and four measures of executive function. Out of the total of 60 Matrices, the Roma solved an average of 29, placing them at the 3rd percentile on 1993 U.S. norms, yielding an IQ equivalent of 70. On the executive function tests, the Roma averaged at about the level of Serbian 10-year-olds. The Matrices showed a small mean sex difference favoring males.

http://dienekes.blogspot.co.at/2006/10/iq-of-serbian-gypsies.html



{Comment: Snurdle Bug said...

    How can their IQ so low, when they are able to maximally exploit the public assistance benefits of the wealthier countries which they invaded and are able to live without working?}


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Full text of "The IQ Of Gypsies In Central Europe"

https://archive.org/stream/TheIQOfGypsiesInCentralEurope/The%20IQ%20of%20Gypsies%20in%20Central%20Europe_djvu.txt
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Mormons are average

http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/gnxp/2010/09/mormons-are-average/#.Ws73b5dlDIU

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Is humanity getting smarter or dumber with time? The answer may be both.

https://www.livescience.com/37095-humans-smarter-or-dumber.html

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Brand New - America's Dumbest Criminals


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hQKTQQcYS7g&list=PLhAhjCDDyiHazYSO71Yo8r1d-Ab-S1Lz6

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The decline of the world's IQ

http://www.iapsych.com/iqmr/fe/LinkedDocuments/lynn2008.pdf

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com

4. The decline of genotypic IQ within countries

The negative association between IQ and fertility across nations is not the only factor responsible for a decline in the world's genotypic intelligence. An additional factor is dysgenic fertility within countries. As noted in Section 1, the Retherford and Sewell (1988) study indicated a decline of genotypic intelligence in the United States of 0.57 IQ points a generation. About the same magnitude of dysgenic fertility has been found in several other economically developed nations, reviewed in Lynn (1996).

Much less is known about whether dysgenic fertility is present in economically developing countries. The only work known to us is that of Meisenberg, Lawless, Lambert and Newton (2005)
and is a study of the Afro-Caribbean population of Dominica. In this study of 352 people aged
51–62 it was found that for men the association between intelligence measured by the Progressive Matrices and number of children was slightly positive for men (r=0.06),but negative for women (r=-
0.163). The greater dysgenic fertility for women than for men has typically been found
in economically developed countries. If we combine the results for men and women, the correlation between intelligence and fertility in Dominica is - 0.08 and is therefore slightly dysgenic. It is not possible to estimate the magnitude of the decline of genotypic intelligence from the data. All that can be inferred from this study is that dysgenic fertility is present in Dominica and this may
or may not be typical of other economically developing countries. If it is, dysgenic fertility within countries is a likely a worldwide phenomenon and is increasing the magnitude of the decline of the world's genotypic intelligence estimated in Sections 2 and 3

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On the possibility of the reemergence of a dysgenic trend with respect to intelligence in American fertility differentials


 1982

Abstract

This paper examines the relationship between IQ and fertility in a sample of men and women aged 25–34 as of the late 1970s. This sample is of unusual interest for two reasons: (1) it is a national probability sample, representative of the non-institutional civilian population of the U.S. as a whole, and (2) it is for a post-World War II cohort. Most previous studies of the IQ/fertility relationship have employed nationally unrepresentative samples of cohorts born in the pre-war period, 1910–1940. The bias, in both time and place, of the samples used in these studies has not been adequately grasped by those who cite them as evidence of a eugenic trend with respect to intelligence.
The major finding of these previous studies was that the IQ/fertility relationship is slightly positive, contrary to expectations though confirmatory of the so-called Eugenic Hypothesis. My working hypothesis is that this finding is special to the cohort chosen for study, i.e., one whose child-bearing took place during a period of rising birth rates (cohorts born between 1910 and 1940 were largely responsible for the baby boom after World War II). That is, in periods of rising birth rates, persons with higher intelligence tend to have fertility equal to, if not exceeding, that of the population as a whole. In periods of falling birth rates, the opposite is the case, according to my thesis.

This thesis is generally supported by the data set described above. Fertility differentials to date within the post-World War II cohort, which entered its reproductive years during a period of falling birth rates, show a negative relationship between intelligence and fertility. The relationship is less negative for white men than for white women and for white women than for black women (black men are omitted from this study due to deficiencies in the data). The stated intentions of this cohort with respect to future fertility, if realized, will moderate the degree of this relationship, particularly for whites, but not change its sign.


 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0160289682900022

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Psychologists Go to War


One of the striking findings of the Army Testing Project was that around half of the Army recruits tested at or below the level of “moron.”

http://behavioralscientist.org/psychologists-go-war/


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Human intelligence 'peaked thousands of years ago and we've been on an intellectual and emotional decline ever since'

https://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/human-intelligence-peaked-thousands-of-years-ago-and-weve-been-on-an-intellectual-and-emotional-8307101.html


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Destruction of cultural heritage by ISIL


Mosques and shrines
Churches and monasteries
Ancient and medieval sites
Palmyra
Hatra
Libraries


 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Destruction_of_cultural_heritage_by_ISIL

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 {Hey look at this, it is just a bunch of low IQ black guys and Arabs running around while  destroying historical priceless cultural monuments, statues and sites. These types of actions of vandalism need to stop, and we need to also have people stop vandalizing and defacing neighborhoods.}

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 Kuwaiti preacher, ISIS call for demolition of Egypt’s Sphinx, pyramids


Published time: 9 Mar, 2015

https://www.rt.com/news/239093-islamist-calls-destroy-pyramids/

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 ITALY: African Muslim destroys invaluable historic Statues in 4 Roman Churches, terrorizes Tourists


 Oct 13, 2016



https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=df_si1PnEcY


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35 Invaluable Hindu and Buddhist Statues Destroyed in Maldives by Extremist Islamic Group

 

February 23, 2012

 http://www.chakranews.com/invaluable-hindu-amd-buddhist-statues-destroyed-in-maldives-by-extremist-islamic-group/2224


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Effects of Centuries of Extreme Inbreeding Among Muslims: Low IQ, Violence and Terrorism






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Asian Race Highlights - "The Pacific Century"

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SG3nm-Autsg

 (Why do Oriental body features of humans differ from other races of humans?}

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The Ancient Greeks Weren't All Geniuses

Anatoly Karlin • December 23, 2015

The cultural and scientific achievements of Ancient Greece are so manifold that it is barely worth recounting them. Socrates, Plato and Aristotle laid the foundations of Western philosophy. Pythogoras, Euclid, and Archimedes launched mathematics as a disciple grounded on logic and proof, a break from the approximative techniques that had held sway in other civilizations (and would largely continue to do so). To this day many medical schools have their students swear an oath under the name of Hippocrates. Homer, Aeschylus, Euripides – the originators of, and still giants in, the Western literary canon. Herodotus and Thucydides, the founders of a historiography that was something more than just a court chronicle.

Ancient Greek IQ = 125 (Galton)

https://www.unz.com/akarlin/ancient-greeks-not-geniuses/

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IQ: 200+ (references)This is a featured page

http://www.eoht.info/page/IQ%3A+200%2B+%28references%29


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From child prodigies to playwrights, the world's 40 smartest people of all time revealed

 http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-3721556/The-smartest-40-people-time-revealed-List-includes-geniuses-Einstein-da-Vinci-s-number-one.html#ixzz5CR8sTG5T


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Whole Brain Size and General Mental Ability: A Review

 2009 Apr


Additional findings in Appendix 1 are of interest. For example, the brain volume–GMA correlation is equally strong in males and females (e.g., Andreasen et al., 1993; Wickett, Vernon, & Lee, 1994, 2000). It is also found in people of East Asian, East Indian, European, Turkish, African, South American, and Amerindian descent (e.g., Andreasen et al., 1993; Ivanovic et al., 2004; Tan et al., 1999). Age, although it plays a role in brain size and GMA, does not confound the results. Studies using a narrow age range of younger or older samples show the same magnitude of correlation (e.g., Deary et al., 2007; Egan et al., 1994).

Several studies have examined whether different regions of the brain would show differential correlations with GMA. Many appear to show that the size effects are manifest throughout the brain and not specific to any particular region (Andreasen et al., 1993; Reiss et al., 1996). However, other studies show GMA centered in the frontal brain regions (Jung & Haier, 2007). Colom et al. (2006a, 2006b) used the method of correlated vectors and found evidence for both positions—the more g-loaded subtests were distributed throughout the brain but concentrated most in the frontal lobes.

A unique study that did not fit the appendix is Witelson et al.'s (Witelson, Beresh, & Kigar, 2006) prospective study of 100 cancer patients (58 women and 42 men) who completed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and agreed to a postmortem examination. The subjects were Caucasian 25- to 83-year-olds (mean = 56 years). Although the subjects were ambulatory and well functioning, they were all on medication, which may have affected their performance. Also, some patients survived for several years after completing the tests, resulting in a delay before brain measurement. Nonetheless, the average correlation between brain weight and GMA for males was r = 0.26, and for females it was r = 0.31.

A functional relation between brain size and cognitive ability has been found in four studies showing that the correlation between brain size and GMA holds true within families as well as between families (Bergvall et al., 2006; Gignac et al., 2003; Jensen, 1994; Jensen & Johnson, 1994; although one study failed to do so: Schoenemann et al., 2000). The within-family finding is of special interest because it controls for most of the sources of variance that distinguish families, such as social class, styles of child rearing, and general nutrition, that differ between families. The largest of these is a population-based study that measured head size at birth and GMA at age 18 at the time of conscription in the Swedish military (Bergvall et al., 2006). Analyses were made of data on 96,189 males who had at least one full brother similarly measured. The between-family analysis showed that a small head circumference for gestational age (>1 SD below the mean) was associated with a 10% increase in risk of low intellectual performance (the lowest 11% of scores); the within-family analysis showed a 5% increase in risk.




https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2668913/

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In Search of a High IQ African Population - Do Africans Really Have an IQ of 70? 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RxAhwYoZQKU&index=2&list=PLgE7CmyxsOa6eETOiyrOpbOoKRnO-Df7i&bpctr=1523551845

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 Race with Lowest Measured IQ: Australian Aboriginals and Bushmen/ Pygmies - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EsZ11VVdP_M


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  Pygmy peoples


 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pygmy_peoples

Origins

Various theories have been proposed to explain the short stature of pygmies. Some studies suggest that it could be related to adaptation to low ultraviolet light levels in rainforests. This might mean that relatively little vitamin D can be made in human skin, thereby limiting calcium uptake from the diet for bone growth and maintenance, and leading to the evolution of the small skeletal size.
Other explanations include lack of food in the rainforest environment, low calcium levels in the soil, the need to move through dense jungle, adaptation to heat and humidity, and as an association with rapid reproductive maturation under conditions of early mortality. (See also Aeta people § Demographics.) Other evidence points towards unusually low levels of expression of the genes encoding the growth hormone receptor and growth hormone compared to the related tribal groups, associated with low serum levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 and short stature.



Abuse by non-Pygmies

 

Reported genocide in Rwanda

The Pygmy population was also a target of the Interahamwe during the 1994 Rwandan Genocide. Of the 30,000 Pygmies in Rwanda, an estimated 10,000 were killed and another 10,000 were displaced. They have been described as "forgotten victims" of the genocide. The current Rwandan Pygmy population is about 33,000, and it is reportedly declining.

Reported genocide in the Congo

From the end of 2002 through January 2003 around 60,000 Pygmy civilians and 10,000 combatants were killed in an extermination campaign known as "Effacer le Tableau" during the Second Congo War. Human rights activists have made demands for the massacre to be recognized as genocide.

Slavery

In the Republic of the Congo, where Pygmies make up 2% of the population, many Pygmies live as slaves to Bantu masters. The nation is deeply stratified between these two major ethnic groups. The Pygmy slaves belong to their Bantu masters from birth in a relationship that the Bantus call a time-honored tradition. Even though the Pygmies are responsible for much of the hunting, fishing and manual labor in jungle villages, Pygmies and Bantus alike say that Pygmies are often paid at the master's whim: in cigarettes, used clothing, or simply not paid at all. As a result of pressure from UNICEF and human-rights activists, in 2009, a law that would grant special protections to the Pygmy people was awaiting a vote by the Congo parliament. According to reports made in 2013, this law was never passed.
In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, during the Ituri Conflict, Ugandan backed rebel groups were accused by the UN of enslaving Mbutis to prospect for minerals and forage for forest food, with those returning empty handed being killed and eaten.

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Effacer le tableau


Effacer le tableau ("erasing the board") is the operational name given for the systematic extermination of the Bambuti pygmies by rebel forces in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Effacer_le_tableau

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{We are for the Pygmy people to not face persecution, and have their own area for themselves. This is why if we go to space, they could even have a Pygmy land, you could even have Oompa Loompas running around also for all I care. Yes, some Pygmy people do have a very low IQ, but some Pygmies are actually some of the smartest Africans as well. What some of the Pygmy people lack in physical size, they make up for in being smarter than many other Africans.

You will see how many Africans try to genocide the Pygmy people and put the Pygmy people into slavery, this has been going on for thousands of years.  If you are a Pygmy, Albino or a European in many parts of Africa, they will hunt you down and kill you for being different.}


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{ I am trying to find the best way to exist peacefully in the world, without any group of people having to face genocide.

My main goal right now I wanted to make for my media organization is that we need to populate the human species off of the planet. We could have all races of humans living in space, where there could even be trillions of people.

I believe that many parts of the world are currently overpopulated, such as China and India, which these countries currently have over 1.2 billion people. Do you really think that having 20 billion people on the planet would make the planet overpopulated?

With all respects, we can see how most races are now trying to out breed each other, in a race to populate the planet for the future in order for their race to survive.

Some people say that to call for population control is a form of authoritarian fascism.

Now, if people are calling for population control, does this mean that race control comes with population control? We know that the government wants to control the races. We should take these people out of power, such as the Rothschilds and these secret societies, including the Vatican.

Should we regulate the population of race in the world, to where one race would not feel threatened by another race, and feel like they are facing genocide.


I think it would be better if we could expand all life and different types of people in different parts of the Universe.

We could have areas with all different types of races, including areas that have the majority of one race, if you want to see that type of culture or want a change of pace. 

This one African guy I know hates the fact that Northern Africa is now not even as many black people as there once were, and more of a Moroccan look to the people is now in many Northern African lands, with all respects. The point we are trying to make is that just because someone is brown skinned, doesn't mean that they want another nation of people that is also brown skinned, to genocide that other nations culture through war or breeding. Many native Nigerian Christians despise any type of Muslim, cause the Muslims are trying to genocide off their people and culture in Nigeria.

Many people also think that several different races of people traveled to America many thousands of years ago, and that Africans were in South America over 20,000 years ago. It is also true that the Nordic people traveled to Newfoundland and parts of the continent of North America, and also have a history in America. The Siberian/Mongolian Asian bloodline that traveled into America were able to repopulate the most.

One day their father and children are listening to reggae, and then all of a sudden their great grandchildren are preaching the Koran, and death to their father's own Christian people and culture. This is the type of poison we can see with Islam.

Would a religion such Islam even be able to coexist with other religions in space. The answer is that the people of Islam need to see that the scriptures have been altered just as we can see in the Bible, and that trying to cause the genocide of another race is not the way to go.

We should not have to go to war and kill millions or billions of Middle Easterners, and that we would just lose more DNA of an ancient people. I know that Islam gives Middle Eastern people a bad name, to where now when I see a Muslim in Europe, or Asia, I think how they are trying to genocide the people and culture with Sharia law.  If we go to war with each other, it could just become nuclear and chemical annihilation, and that my goal is a journalist is to bring reason to many problems.

As I said, we are for different cultures to breed, yet we think we should save the lineage and DNA of many people, such as we study different species of animals or even dinosaurs.
I think that we were meant to expand in space, so that we can keep the great races and all the great DNA lineage of our ancestors.


How would we divide up the races and make plenty of room for any type of person in space.



I do not want to harm any race of people such as Middle Easterners, just cause the majority of those individuals happen to be poisoned with Sharia law. Most of these Muslims bringing in Sharia Law and causing the genocide of other cultures, are not even a fraction of the honor that many of their ancestors had before Islam was even invented.


The question is, how would we regulate the population in space including the race of people in space.

I believe that all of the distinct races deserve to have their DNA and lineage saved and continue to live for billions and even trillions of years.

Would you rather want humanity to end with the planet, or populate space and have humans and animals live on.

We could even have giant biospheres in giant openings inside of planets and caves of other planets.
We could have everything from skiing, snowboarding, wave machines for surfing, hundreds of amusement parks and water parks, biospheres with rain forests and waterfalls and animals. We could have an abundance of food, wealth. Any fun event we can think of doing on Earth, we could do in a colony in other parts of the Universe.

We can see the great and distinctive races of the Earth, such as Africans, Orientals, Whites, etc. These races deserve the right to keep their identity and to expand in different parts of the Universe.

I hear many authoritarian people say that we should have a one world race of people, so that no one can be racist against each other. To me this is like saying that people will go genocide all of the great and distinctive races and their culture, then breed them all out to have one race, in order to avoid racism. To me this idea is like combining all of the worst authoritarian dictators  that have massacred and tortured people in the world, then saying how we should have a global holocaust of everyone's culture, in order to obtain peace. This statement is also very Orwellian,  and almost sounds like a type of war for peace type of quote.

Why not keep and expand all of the great and distinctive races in space, and create even more mixed races of people in the Universe, along with more blacks, more Hispanics, more Asians and more Whites. I just love each race so much, that I do not want to see any of them face extinction. You could literally have a trillion white people, a trillion blacks, a trillion Asians, a trillion Latinos/Native Indian Americans, and even a trillion Middle Easterners.

Joke: Jews can even live in space as well, I am not sure if that would count as being space Zionism.

I think it would be great to have a space colony where we could have thousands of different colonies just like Earth as well. We could have some colonies that are more European and other colonies that are more Oriental, such as China Town style. We could have an Amazonian style colony as well. We could have hundreds of different  of colonies such as South American style mulatto colonies. You see there is no need to kill each other and go to war, and that we should find a means of trying to exist together without exterminating the bloodlines of our ancestors.

Many people think that we should have a similar policy on Earth, and that this is why different groups of people have set different borders and nations, in order to defend the DNA and bloodlines of their ancestors, without having to fall to another group of people.

We must save the European people and the bloodlines of Europeans, before they face genocide from Sharia Law. This is a good example of why I hate the governments in power, and make videos and books trying to expose how they poison people with food, water and vaccines.  The same government trying to genocide my people, while preventing us from expanding into space, just so that you can keep your power.  

The question is what we must ask, is one race of people willing to genocide off another race of people, in order to thrive. The answer is yes, and we can see how many Sharia extremists are causing the genocide of people of other religions, groups and cultures, these actions of genocide  need to stop.

We need to stop the Islamic man from trying to genocide off all of the distinctive races of people and cultures.

The people in control are afraid to let people colonize space and other planets, because it is a giant liability that they could lose their power. Imagine if we had the technology to send off spaceships to populate different areas of the Universe. We could see how one group of people could advance their own technology in remote areas of space, to try to overthrow another civilization in the Universe, if they felt that other group of beings or people would try to overthrow or genocide another group or colony for its resources and technology. Imagine if we had a group of people that could go to a different area of space, then come back and defeat the corrupt people in control of the world currently. The question everyone asks, is what would stop these people from using chemical and nuclear weapons, if their power was to be threatened by another group of people.

The people in power currently want to genocide many of the great races, then eventually have a very few limited amount of people on the planet Earth. We need to warn people that the one world government want population control and to limit the amount of people on the planet. We  must colonize other areas of space, or that human race could eventually face extinction from fascist governments or a natural disaster. We need to colonize other areas of space and have the opportunity to expand the DNA of our ancestors in other parts of the Universe.

Does this mean that we have Sharia law in Space? Sharia Law is a bad example to set for humanity and is not a good example of what mankind should be. We should ban Sharia law in space, we cannot have Sharia Law undermine the ability for the people to colonize different areas of the Universe.}

-----------------------------

‘The time for reconciliation is over’: South Africa votes to confiscate white-owned land without compensation

“THE time for reconciliation is over.” South Africa’s parliament has backed a motion to confiscate land owned by white people.

http://www.news.com.au/finance/economy/world-economy/the-time-for-reconciliation-is-over-south-africa-votes-to-confiscate-whiteowned-without-compensation/news-story/a8a81155995b1adc1c399d3576c4c0bc

---------------------------


Judge for Yourself: White Genocide South Africa -  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_be1Q6-B8LE

-------------------------

 Is there a future for White Afrikaners? - BBC Our World https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YH329UbQokY

-------------------------


The Endgame - Full White Genocide Documentary  - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uMfk5UeGw4E

--------------------------

Refugees are not welcome in Europe anymore - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SjlWsPKaVzo


---------------------

 Europeans Are Waking Up! | How Even Ordinary People Are Beginning to Take Action Against Immigration  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HlP84iYwVbY


---------------



{This is a good example of why I think we should regulate population and race on the planet. Sure Europe, the Middle East and Africa all had their conflicts, and we should stop war.

How would it sound if Europe decided to confiscate all black-owned land and all the land that Arabs own in Europe to repay the favor?

 These groups are just as guilty for trying to war against the Europeans in past history, as we see with Africans invading Spain and Italy.


I think we should repay the favor in both ways, where we should have Europe as around over 90% White, and South Africa as around  70% black (give or take some percentage points). This is just a thought I am having while reading over this article, and is just an example of what we could do, or something similar to. We could still have whites living in Africa and that could travel in peace, and some blacks that can visit Europe in peace. The European people do not want Europe to be flooded with a bunch of Muslims. Let us be honest, and fight for the right for Europeans to keep their heritage and preserve their bloodlines, without a bunch of low IQ Sharia savages trying to genocide off your people and culture like mindless barbarians. We need to stop the EU and UN from trying to genocide off the European people. All of Africa does not belong to the black people anyways, Africa is a giant continent and many other Northern African people and groups live in Africa as well. The ancient Egyptians were not all black, and that white people have a right to live in certain areas of Africa.

Remember that I was the one trying to bring this to a peaceful resolution and avoid a war between nations, cultures and races. It is the UN globalist government that wants to divide and conquer the people, and why they are using Sharia law to try and destabilize independent nations.

I think we should remove most of the Africans and Middle Easterners out of Europe, if they remove whites from Africa and the Middle East. We know they are being used as weaponized humans against the European people, and for globalization. How many more thousands of articles are we going to hear about the European people facing genocide by foreigners. I say we regulate the races of Europe, and preserve the DNA and traits of the European people, without being victim to a globalist plan of genocide.

Let's talk about genetically modified humans. Get this, they want me to omit scientific evidence to please a group of people, in order to be politically correct. How can I even complete my book on Genetically modified humans and genetically modified vaccines, without adding and providing all information on the traits of different humans. They are trying to create genetically modified humans on this planet, in order to phase out real people. We can even see the traits in races differ, and that we should be open and honest about these studies.}



---------------------------
--------------------
----------------------

Chapter 2: Race & Sports

------------------
------------------
--------------------------


Muhammad Ali - Racial Integration - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HqiWFLsgVi4

{Blue Birds want to be with Blue Birds, Red Birds want to be with Red Birds.
Sometimes Blue Birds will mate with a Red Bird, and make a different colored Bird. However, Blue Birds many times are known for being highly territorial, and if you are not a Blue Bird, it is a good chance the Blue Bird might chase another type of bird off. Different humans tribes are the same way, and why we have distinctive races, and we are not all just one race. I think it is great to have all  the colors of different animals and plants, including humans.

The white man is not the enemy of the black man, the black man is not the enemy of the white man.
We have our cultural differences, and one race should not have to face genocide from another race. I believe we should work together to expand the human race and travel in space. Africans are actually a very smart people, and when you look at all the great black inventors and athletes, they have earned their place as a distinctive race. Just as the white man is a distinctive race with his own inventions and different athletic achievements, including Orientals and people from the Middle East, and should not have to suffer genocide either.
The Vatican wants to replace Protestant Blacks, with Catholics from South America and Muslims in Europe as well, in order to create a one world religion called Chrislam. We are for all the races to live in peace, and we believe that the government is trying to genocide off the white race, including other races, to form a one world race. We believe we should regulate population, immigration and race on the planet, so that the European people do not face genocide from a bunch of Muslims.

Let's talk about boxing vs Mixed Martial Arts (MMA).

Would boxers and people like Muhammad Ali stand a chance using the same tactics
in a real street fight or MMA fight.

Let's talk about how people like Floyd Mayweather go 50-0, when half the time he just runs around the ring and doesn't even fight.
Then we see how the refs still end up giving him the win against Pacquiao, just so he can say he is still undefeated.}

-----------

Muhammad Ali


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muhammad_Ali


{Ali lost over 5 times, but all fighters lose, even when sparing in training at an early age. I think there are better boxers out there.}


 -------


Don King Exposed – PBS Film – Conned Mike Tyson, Ripped-off Tim Witherspoon and Other Champs

 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3-GUcIS3MEE

--------


Report: Floyd Mayweather used WADA-banned IV before Manny Pacquiao fight

http://abc11.com/sports/report-floyd-mayweather-used-wada-banned-iv-before-manny-pacquiao-fight/976762/


--------

{Many say that Mayweather would not last very long against a real boxer or in a real fight with someone such as Nikolai Valuev, who of course is in a different weight class.}

-----------

Nikolai Valuev

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nikolai_Valuev

Record: 50 wins - 2 loses

-----------------

 {We can see that many different nations of people win boxing tournaments many times.}

-----------------

List of Olympic medalists in boxing


#1 USA
#2 Cuba
#3 Great Britain
#4: Italy
#5 Soviet Union

 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Olympic_medalists_in_boxing


--------------

Wrestling at the Summer Olympics


 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wrestling_at_the_Summer_Olympics

 All-time medal table – 1896–2016

Rank     Nation     Gold     Silver     Bronze     Total

1      Soviet Union (URS)     62     31     23     116
2      United States (USA)     54     43     35     132
3      Japan (JPN)     32     20     17     69
4      Russia (RUS)     30     11     15     63
5      Turkey (TUR)     29     18     16     56
6      Sweden (SWE)     28     27     31     86
7      Finland (FIN)     26     28     29     83
8      Hungary (HUN)     19     16     19     54
9      Bulgaria (BUL)     16     32     21     69
10      South Korea (KOR)     11     11     14     36
11      Iran (IRI)     9     14     20     43
12      Cuba (CUB)     9     6     7     22
13      Romania (ROU)     7     8     18     33
14      Italy (ITA)     7     4     10     21
15      Unified Team (EUN)     6     5     5     16
16      Poland (POL)     5     9     12     26
17      Estonia (EST)     5     2     4     11
18      Germany (GER)     4     12     9     25
19      Azerbaijan (AZE)     4     7     11     22
20      Yugoslavia (YUG)     4     6     6     16
21      France (FRA)     4     4     10     18
22      Switzerland (SUI)     4     4     6     14
23      Canada (CAN)     3     7     7     17
24      Ukraine (UKR)     3     4     6     13
25      Georgia (GEO)     3     4     11     18
26      Great Britain (GBR)     3     4     10     17
27      North Korea (PRK)     3     2     5     10
28      Uzbekistan (UZB)     3     2     3     8
29      China (CHN)     2     3     5     10
30      Armenia (ARM)     2     3     3     8
31      East Germany (GDR)     2     3     2     7
 Egypt (EGY)     2     3     2     7
33      Norway (NOR)     2     2     2     6
34      Czechoslovakia (TCH)     1     7     7     15
35      Kazakhstan (KAZ)     1     5     9     15
36      United Team of Germany (EUA)     1     5     3     9
37      West Germany (FRG)     1     4     4     9
38      Greece (GRE)     1     3     7     11
39      Serbia (SRB)     1     0     0     1
40      Belarus (BLR)     0     4     7     11
41      Mongolia (MGL)     0     4     5     9
42      Denmark (DEN)     0     3     6     9
43      Belgium (BEL)     0     3     0     3
44      India (IND)     0     1     4     5
45      Lebanon (LIB)     0     1     2     3
 Australia (AUS)     0     1     2     3
47      Lithuania (LTU)     0     1     1     2
48      Syria (SYR)     0     1     0     1
 Mexico (MEX)     0     1     0     1
 Latvia (LAT)     0     1     0     1
51      Austria (AUT)     0     0     2     2
 Colombia (COL)     0     0     2     2
53      Macedonia (MKD)     0     0     1     1
 Pakistan (PAK)     0     0     1     1
 Moldova (MDA)     0     0     1     1
 Tunisia (TUN)     0     0     1     1
Total     407     405     459     1271


{Many Soviet wrestlers are on steroids.}



-------------------

World's Strongest Man 2016 EPIC DEADLIFT 2 WORLD RECORDS HALL VS SHAW

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qQEib1nkPnE

----------------


World's Strongest Man


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World%27s_Strongest_Man#Most_championships


Most championships

Champion     Country     Times     Years
Mariusz Pudzianowski      Poland     5     2002, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2008
Žydrunas Savickas      Lithuania     4     2009, 2010, 2012, 2014
Magnús Ver Magnússon      Iceland     4     1991, 1994, 1995, 1996
Jón Páll Sigmarsson      Iceland     4     1984, 1986, 1988, 1990
Brian Shaw      United States     4     2011, 2013, 2015, 2016
Bill Kazmaier      United States     3     1980, 1981, 1982
Jouko Ahola      Finland     2     1997, 1999
Geoff Capes      United Kingdom     2     1983, 1985
Bruce Wilhelm      United States     2     1977, 1978



{You will see that it is pretty much mostly people of European descent that are winning these strongman competitions.
Notice how the only African you see winning these Strongman competitions, is a big giant white guy who is South African. Africans are good at running away from European strongman competitions, because they know they will lose. I think it is a good thing that Africans should be able to have their own sports they are good at, such as running, jumping and basketball. I think blacks are good athletes in their own field of events, just as are white athletes}.

-----------------



Ryan Kennelly All time 308 best bench 1075 lbs

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WMKiBdhnYlA

{European ancestry.}

-------------------------



Progression of the bench press world record

(1,075 lb)     2008     Ryan Kennelly presses 1075.0 lb (487.6 kg) 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Progression_of_the_bench_press_world_record


-------------------------


All Squats (with & without wraps)

SHW 1,102    Vlad Alhazov Israel 07/22/17 NPA

https://www.powerliftingwatch.com/records/raw/world

------------------

Vlad Alhazov - Power monster RAW SQUAT 532,5 kg, DEDLIFT 450 kg

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9wzBCSknHtU

{The guy is Israeli, but look how he is really 2/3rds white.}

-----------------------------

Alaska powerlifter breaks world record, squatting 3.2 times her body weight

https://www.ktoo.org/2017/11/17/alaska-powerlifter-breaks-world-record-squatting-3-2-times-body-weight/

{European ancestry}

---------------------------------


Deadlift

World records

    The world record strongman-style deadlift (where a suit, straps and hitching are allowed) is 500 kg (1,102.3 lb) by Eddie Hall. He also owns the partial deadlift world record at 536 kg (1,181.7 lb).

    The world record deadlift for women is 305 kg (672.4 lb) by Becca Swanson

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deadlift#World_records

{European ancestry}

-----------------------------

'The Mountain' from 'Game of Thrones' set the deadlift world record at 1,041 pounds

https://ftw.usatoday.com/2018/03/hafthor-bjornsson-deadlift-world-record-video-the-mountain-game-of-thrones-1041-pounds-strongman-classic

{Viking ancestry}

------------------------------




Sports and strength

http://www.guinnessworldrecords.com/records/showcase/sports-and-strength


{We can see how it is constantly mostly whites and Europeans that win strongman competitions.}


----------------------------




College Wrestling Records That May Never Be Broken



https://news.theopenmat.com/blog/2017/11/15/college-wrestling-records-may-never-broken/

{Again, notice how it is a bunch of people of European descent winning in wrestling.}


-------------------



 Do Black People Have Better Genetics For Building Muscle?


http://nattyornot.com/black-people-better-genetics-building-muscle/

Is it true that race can influence muscle size?


It’s Not About Race. It’s About Personal Muscle Genetics


The black community is gifted in the field of athletics. This is backed by the fact that almost all top level running athletes are black. Track and field has always been dominated by black people, and it doesn’t look like the hegemony will end.


The fact that black people are good at fast and explosive sports such as sprinting has a direct effect on bodybuilding since both activities rely on fast twitch muscle fibers.


Fast twitch fibers have more potential for muscular growth than slow twitch fibers. This partially explains why people carrying a predominant amount of fast twitch fibers have larger musculatures.


However, there are “highs” and “lows” in every community. Some black people have good genetics for building muscle, but there are also many who don’t.


The fact that you’re black does not mean that you have superior genetics for building muscle mass by default. Muscle size depends on your personal genes and overall potential for growth rather than race.



Victor


March 20, 2017 at 11:42 pm



I think blacks are better for muscle building and whites are better for strength. Most of the powerlifters are white people. You don’t see any black domain in powerlifting and see in bodybuilding. Simples as that.


Black = size


White = strength



    Reply


    Abg


    March 30, 2017 at 12:07 am



    *facepalm*


    End your bro science idiot ie mr victor


    Reply


    Conway


    July 6, 2017 at 11:01 pm



    This is a very near-sighted comment my friend. I think culturally powerlifting has always been a Caucasian males sport in the US. Don’t forget people like Ronnie Coleman and CT Fletcher. We can’t take singular, anecdotal points of view and apply it to genetic statistics without scientific evidence. Cheers!



Reply


Scott


April 16, 2017 at 2:49 am



Such a baseless argument. I’m an African and not muscular like you think. White black or Asian we are the same.


Reply


Stephen


June 25, 2017 at 6:12 pm



Agree with Scott. We are all pretty much the same.


-----------------

{The truth is that blacks, whites, Arabs and Asians all have different muscle types and skeletal types.

There are different body types as well, such as Ectomorph, Mesomorph and Endomorph body types.}

-------------

Male & Female Body Types

Ectomorph body type

Mesomorph body type

Endomorph body type

Hybrid body type

 

 

http://www.teemajor.com/teemajorsblog/3-male-female-body-types-explained

 {Notice how most of the very tall people in the NBA would be considered an Ectomorph.}

------------



{Different body types are also meant for bodybuilding shows and developing muscles to look bigger, but then there are muscles built for strength. This is why many power lifters that can lift a lot often, many times do not look as ripped as some bodybuilders that are actually weaker in strength for lifting heavy objects.}


----------------



Human genetic variation


 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_genetic_variation


Human genetic variation is the genetic differences in and among populations. There may be multiple variants of any given gene in the human population (alleles), a situation called polymorphism.
No two humans are genetically identical. On average, in DNA sequence, each human is 99.9% similar to any other human. Even monozygotic twins (who develop from one zygote) have infrequent genetic differences due to mutations occurring during development and gene copy-number variation. Differences between individuals, even closely related individuals, are the key to techniques such as genetic fingerprinting.
Alleles occur at different frequencies in different human populations. Populations that are more geographically and ancestrally remote tend to differ more, a phenomenon known as isolation-by-distance. The differences between populations represent a small proportion of overall human genetic variation. Populations also differ in the quantity of variation among their members, with the greatest diversity among African populations. This is consistent with the theory that humans recently migrated out of Africa. Populations vary in the (always small) proportion of DNA they received from archaic hominid populations, such as Neanderthals and Denisovans.
The study of human genetic variation has evolutionary significance and medical applications. It can help scientists understand ancient human population migrations as well as how human groups are biologically related to one another. For medicine, study of human genetic variation may be important because some disease-causing alleles occur more often in people from specific geographic regions. New findings show that each human has on average 60 new mutations compared to their parents.

Haplogroups

In the study of molecular evolution, a haplogroup is a group of similar haplotypes that share a common ancestor with a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mutation. Haplogroups pertain to deep ancestral origins dating back thousands of years.
The most commonly studied human haplogroups are Y-chromosome (Y-DNA) haplogroups and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups, both of which can be used to define genetic populations. Y-DNA is passed solely along the patrilineal line, from father to son, while mtDNA is passed down the matrilineal line, from mother to both daughter and son. The Y-DNA and mtDNA may change by chance mutation at each generation.

Variable number tandem repeats

A variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) is the variation of length of a tandem repeat. A tandem repeat is the adjacent repetition of a short nucleotide sequence. Tandem repeats exist on many chromosomes, and their length varies between individuals. Each variant acts as an inherited allele, so they are used for personal or parental identification. Their analysis is useful in genetics and biology research, forensics, and DNA fingerprinting.
Short tandem repeats (about 5 base pairs) are called microsatellites, while longer ones are called minisatellites.


----------

Human genome


 The human genome is the complete set of nucleic acid sequences for humans, encoded as DNA within the 23 chromosome pairs in cell nuclei and in a small DNA molecule found within individual mitochondria. Human genomes include both protein-coding DNA genes and noncoding DNA. Haploid human genomes, which are contained in germ cells (the egg and sperm gamete cells created in the meiosis phase of sexual reproduction before fertilization creates a zygote) consist of three billion DNA base pairs, while diploid genomes (found in somatic cells) have twice the DNA content. While there are significant differences among the genomes of human individuals (on the order of 0.1%), these are considerably smaller than the differences between humans and their closest living relatives, the chimpanzees (approximately 4%) and bonobos.

 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_genome


----------

Human Genome Project


 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_Genome_Project


The Human Genome Project (HGP) was an international scientific research project with the goal of determining the sequence of nucleotide base pairs that make up human DNA, and of identifying and mapping all of the genes of the human genome from both a physical and a functional standpoint. It remains the world's largest collaborative biological project. After the idea was picked up in 1984 by the US government when the planning started, the project formally launched in 1990 and was declared complete in 2003. Funding came from the US government through the National Institutes of Health (NIH) as well as numerous other groups from around the world. A parallel project was conducted outside government by the Celera Corporation, or Celera Genomics, which was formally launched in 1998. Most of the government-sponsored sequencing was performed in twenty universities and research centers in the United States, the United Kingdom, Japan, France, Germany, Spain and China.
The Human Genome Project originally aimed to map the nucleotides contained in a human haploid reference genome (more than three billion). The "genome" of any given individual is unique; mapping the "human genome" involved sequencing a small number of individuals and then assembling these together to get a complete sequence for each chromosome. Therefore, the finished human genome is a mosaic, not representing any one individual.

Ethical, legal and social issues

At the onset of the Human Genome Project several ethical, legal, and social concerns were raised in regards to how increased knowledge of the human genome could be used to discriminate against people. One of the main concerns of most individuals was the fear that both employers and health insurance companies would refuse to hire individuals or refuse to provide insurance to people because of a health concern indicated by someone's genes. In 1996 the United States passed the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) which protects against the unauthorized and non-consensual release of individually identifiable health information to any entity not actively engaged in the provision of healthcare services to a patient.
Along with identifying all of the approximately 20,000–25,000 genes in the human genome, the Human Genome Project also sought to address the ethical, legal, and social issues that were created by the onset of the project. For that the Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications (ELSI) program was founded in 1990. Five percent of the annual budget was allocated to address the ELSI arising from the project. This budget started at approximately $1.57 million in the year 1990, but increased to approximately $18 million in the year 2014.
Whilst the project may offer significant benefits to medicine and scientific research, some authors have emphasized the need to address the potential social consequences of mapping the human genome. "Molecularising disease and their possible cure will have a profound impact on what patients expect from medical help and the new generation of doctors' perception of illness."

See also



---------

 

‘Race’ and the Human Genome Project: Constructions of Scientific Legitimacy


 http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/0957926504043707

------


Black and White race differences in aerobic capacity, muscle fiber type, and their influence on metabolic processes.


 2015

Abstract

Obesity is a known risk factor for cardiometabolic disease. Increasing aerobic capacity (VO2max) reduces adiposity, maintains weight, and reduces the risk of developing obesity and cardiometabolic disease. Two major determinants of aerobic capacity are the metabolic properties specific to a particular muscle fiber type and the capacity of the cardiorespiratory system to deliver nutrient-rich content to the muscle. Recent research suggests that some race/ethnic groups, particularly non-Hispanic Black subjects, are predisposed to a reduced VO2max by way of muscle fiber type. Combined with insufficient physical activity, these characteristics place non-Hispanic Black subjects at an increased risk for obesity and other adverse health outcomes when compared with other race/ethnic groups. The purpose of this review was to suggest a model for explaining how skeletal muscle fiber type may contribute to reduced aerobic capacity and obesity among non-Hispanic Black subjects. Our review indicates that metabolic properties of type II skeletal muscle (e.g. reduced oxidative capacity, capillary density) are related to various cardiometabolic diseases. Based on the review, non-Hispanic Black subjects appear to have a lower maximal aerobic capacity and a greater percentage of type II skeletal muscle fibers. Combined with reduced energy expenditure and reduced hemoglobin concentration, non-Hispanic Black subjects may be inherently predisposed to a reduced maximal aerobic capacity compared with non-Hispanic White subjects, thereby increasing the risk for obesity and related metabolic diseases.

 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25739558

----------

Ethnicity-Related Skeletal Muscle Differences Across the Lifespan


2010

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2795070/


----------

Racial Differences in Muscle Fiber Typing Cause Differences in Elite Sporting Competition


 https://notpoliticallycorrect.me/2017/03/17/racial-differences-in-muscle-fiber-typing-cause-differences-in-elite-sporting-competition/



Muscle fiber typing by race

I’ll be quick here since I’ve covered this extensively.
Blacks have more type II muscle fibers in comparison to whites who have more type I muscle fibers. This difference in fiber typing causes differences in aerobic capacity which lead to higher rates of cardiorespiratory diseases such as type II diabetes, heart disease, and hypertension.
There are two types of muscle fibers with two divisions: Type I and Type II with the divisions being in the slow twitch fiber, further broken down into Type IIa and Type II x. Type I fibers fire slowly and possess greater aerobic metabolic capacity due to higher levels of lipid, myoglobin, mitochondrial and capillary content. Type II fibers, on the other hand, fire faster, have reduced aerobic capacity (and all that comes with it) and are better equipped for anaerobic activity (explosive sports). Type IIa possesses more aerobic potential than IIx, but less anaerobic potential than type I fibers. Some evidence exists showing that it’s possible to train type II fibers to have a similar aerobic capacity to type I, but I don’t really buy that. It is possible to make aerobic capacity similar to the aerobic capacity that type I fibers have, but type II will not be fully like them.
Blacks have more type II fibers while whites have more type I fibers. Type II fibers predispose people to a myriad of cardiometabolic diseases which are also associated with grip strength.


Differences in fiber typing in elite athletes

Now comes the fun part. How do muscle fibers differ between elite athletes? A few studies have been done but, as expected in physiology studies, they have a low n, but they still do show physiologic differences when compared to the control subjects, physiologic differences that were predicted due to what we know about muscle fiber typing.
Type IIa fibers possess more aerobic potential than IIx, therefore, power lifters have a higher proportion of IIa fibers compared to IIx fibers. It should also be noted that powerlifters have the same amount of type I fibers as the general population (Fry et al, 2003a), so knowing this fact, since blacks have a lower proportion of type I muscle fibers as noted in Caeser and Hunter (2015), this explains why there are very few black power lifters: they have the opposite type II fiber type while having less type I fiber.
Furthermore, Olympic lifters also use a higher percentage of type IIa fibers (Fry et al, 2003b). This also explains the lower amount of blacks in weight lifting as well. Fiber types don’t explain everything, but at elite levels, they do mean a lot and looking at the racial variation explains racial differences in elite sporting competition.
Explaining racial differences in sprinting competitions is easy as well. Type IIx fibers combined with the ACTN3 gene=elite human performance (Mills et al, 2001). The gene ACTN3 was discovered to explain explosive power, and it just so happened to vary by race. William Saletan writes:
the relative frequency of the X allele is 0.52 in Asians, 0.42 in whites, 0.27 in African-Americans, and 0.16 in Africans. If you break out the data further, the frequency of the XX genotype is 0.25 in Asians, 0.20 in European whites, 0.13 in African-Americans, and 0.01 in African Bantu. Conversely, the frequency of RR (the genotype for speed and power) is 0.25 in Asians, 0.36 in European whites, 0.60 in African-Americans, and 0.81 in African Bantu. Among Asians, you can expect to find one RR for every XX. Among whites, you can expect nearly two RRs for every XX. Among African-Americans, you can expect more than four RRs for every XX.
This allele is responsible for explosive power. Explosive power is needed to excel in events such as sprinting, football, basketball and other sports where power is needed in short bursts. However, where blacks have an advantage in explosive power sports, the advantage is lost once events like swimming, power lifting (described above), Olympic lifting (differing fiber type) etc.



---------

Genetic influence on athletic performance


 2014

ACE I/D

Fifteen years ago, the ACE I/D polymorphism was the first genetic factor to be associated with human performance . The ACE gene codes for angiotensin-1 converting enzyme, part of the renin-angiotensin system responsible for controlling blood pressure by regulating body fluid levels. The ACE I allele represents a 287 bp insertion and is associated with lower serum  and tissue ACE activity while the D (deleted) allele is associated with higher serum and tissue ACE activity. The ACE I/I genotype is consistently associated with endurance performance and higher exercise efficiency while the D/D genotype is associated with strength and power performance, though some conflicting reports do exist. Notably, there is no association between I/D genotype and elite athlete status in Kenyans, highlighting the potential confounding factors of ethnicity and/or geography. An extensive review of the existing literature on ACE genotype and athletic performance through 2011 is available elsewhere. Additionally, a systematic review and meta-analysis of 25 studies examining the association of ACE genotype with sport performance was recently performed by Ma et al.  Overall, the ACE I/I genotype was specifically associated with performance in endurance, but not power, athletes, supporting the general consistency in the literature for an association of ACE I/D genotype with endurance performance.


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3993978/

------------

Race and sports



 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Race_and_sports

Graduation rates

Despite the high rate of participation in the NCAA amongst black athletes, the rates of on-court success have not necessarily translated to the classroom. A University of Central Florida study of 2011 NCAA Men's Basketball Tournament teams indicated that only 59 percent of black players graduated, compared with 91 percent of white players. The disparity can be much larger: Kansas State men's basketball program graduates 100 percent of its white players and only 14 percent of its black players. The other main NCAA revenue sport, FBS football, also has a graduation discrepancy. The 2011-12 TIDES report on bowl-bound FBS teams found that the average graduation rate for white football student athletes was 81 percent on bowl-bound teams, and 61 percent for black student athletes, and 26 percent of the bowl-bound schools graduated less than half of their black football student athletes, while not a single school graduated less than half of its white student athletes.

"Black athletic superiority"

 

"Black athletic superiority" is the theory that black people possess certain traits that are acquired through genetic and/or environmental factors that allow them to excel over other races in athletic competition. Whites are more likely to hold these views; however, some blacks and other racial affiliations do as well. A 1991 poll in the United States indicated that half of the respondents agreed with the belief that "blacks have more natural physical ability".
Various theories regarding racial differences of black and white people and their possible effect on sports performance have been put forth since the later part of the nineteenth century by professionals in many different fields. In the United States, attention to the subject faded over the first two decades of the twentieth century as black athletes were eliminated from white organized sport and segregated to compete among themselves on their own amateur and professional teams. Interest in the subject was renewed after the 1932 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles and Jesse Owens's record-breaking performances at the 1935 Big Ten Track Championships.
In 1971, African-American sociologist Harry Edwards wrote: "The myth of the black male's racially determined, inherent physical and athletic superiority over the white male, rivals the myth of black sexual superiority in antiquity."
 John Milton Hoberman, a historian and Germanic studies professor at the University of Texas at Austin, has acknowledged that disparities in certain athletic performances exist. He has asserted that there is no evidence to confirm the existence of "black athletic superiority".

"East Asian athletic views"

 

In the United States, East Asians are stereotyped as being physically and athletically inferior to other races. This has led to much discrimination in the recruitment process of professional American sports, where Asian American athletes are highly underrepresented in the majority of professional sports teams (a fact that has been noted by many sources). Professional basketball player Jeremy Lin believed that one of the reasons why he wasn't drafted by a NBA team was his race. This belief has been reiterated by sports writer Sean Gregory of Time magazine and NBA commissioner David Stern. In 2012, despite making up 6% of nation's population Asian American athletes only represented 2% of the NFL, 1.9% of the MLB and less than 1% of the NBA and NHL. Brandon Yip is the only player of mixed Asian descent to play professional hockey in the NHL.  Basketball should be a sport that's noted for the fact that it has one of the lowest amounts of Asian athletes being represented despite the fact that the sport's color barrier was broken by an Asian American athlete back in 1947 named Wataru Misaka who was the first American racial minority to play in the NBA.

In American sports, there are and has been a higher representation of Asian American athletes who are of mixed racial heritage in comparison to those of full racial heritage such as the case with former football player Roman Gabriel who was the first Asian-American to start as an NFL quarterback. Another fact to note is that majority of Asian American athletes who are currently drafted/recruited to compete professionally tend to be in sports that require little to no contact.

Chinese views

 

The idea among Chinese people that "genetic differences" cause "Asian athletes" to be "slower at sprinting" than "their American, African or European rivals" is "widely accepted". The People's Daily, a Chinese newspaper, wrote that Chinese are "suited" to sports that draw upon "agility and technique", such as table tennis, badminton and gymnastics. The newspaper said that Chinese people have "congenital shortcomings" and "genetic differences" that meant that they are disadvantaged at "purely athletic events" when competing against "black and white athletes". The success of hurdler Liu Xiang was explained by the hurdles event requiring technique which fit with the stereotype that Chinese are disciplined and intelligent.
Li Aidong, a researcher with the China Institute of Sports Science, said that sports coaches believed that Chinese athletes could have success in long jumping, high jumping and race walking. However, Li doubted that Chinese could compete in "pure sprinting", although there did not exist any "credible scientific studies" which supported the idea that "Asians" were disadvantaged in "sprinting".  Professional sprinters Su Bingtian of China and Yoshihide Kiryū of Japan have contradicted this view of East Asians struggling to achieve quick footspeed, as both have broken the 10-second barrier in the 100 m and Su has ranked in the top five all-time fastest runners over 60 metres.

Explanations for participation and performance disparities

 

Physiological factors

 

A 1994 examination of 32 English sport/exercise science textbooks found that seven suggested that there are biophysical differences due to race that might explain differences in sports performance, one expressed caution with the idea, and the other 24 did not mention the issue.

Socioeconomic factors

 

In Stuck in the Shallow End: Education, Race, and Computing, UCLA researcher Jane Margolis outlines the history of segregation in swimming in the United States to show how blacks have been affected up to the present day by inadequate access to swimming facilities and lessons. Margolis asserts that physiological differences between ethnic groups are relatively minor and says: "In most cases of segregation, stereotypes and belief systems about different ethnic gender groups' genetic make-up and physical abilities (and inabilities) emerge to rationalize unequal access and resulting disparities." According to Margolis, views regarding "buoyancy problems" of African Americans are merely part of folklore which have been passed down from generation to generation. Joan Ferrante, a professor of sociology at Northern Kentucky University, suggests that geographic location, financial resources, and the influence of parents, peers, and role models are involved in channeling individuals of certain races towards particular sports and away from others

Haplogroup inheritance

 

Elite athletic capacity has also been correlated with differing patterns of haplogroup inheritance. Moran et al. (2004) observed that among Y-DNA (paternal) clades borne by elite endurance athletes in Ethiopia, the E*, E3*, K*(xP), and J*(xJ2) are positively correlated with elite athletic endurance performance, whereas the haplogroup E3b1 is significantly less frequent among the elite endurance athletes.
Citing haplogroup data from various previous studies, Ahmetov and Fedotovskaya (2012) report that the mtDNA (maternal) haplogroups I, H, L0, M*, G1, N9, and V have been positively correlated with elite athletic endurance performance, whereas the mtDNA haplogroups L3*, B, K, J2, and T are negatively correlated with athletic endurance performance. Japanese sprinters were also found to have a higher distribution of the mtDNA F.





-----------




Pole vault


Men (comprehensive)

2016 Brazil
2012 France
2008 Australia
2004 USA
2000 USA
1996 France
1988 Russian
1984 France
1980 Poland
1976 Poland
1972 East Germany
1968 USA
1964 USA
1960 USA
1956 USA
1952 USA
1948 USA
1936 USA
1932 USA
1928 USA
1924 USA
1920 USA
1912 USA
1908 USA
1904 USA
1900 USA
1896 USA

 

 Https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pole_vault#Men


(Again, mostly people of European heritage are winning the medals in this event, including a Brazilian.)


-------------

Triple jump


 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triple_jump


World     18.29 m (60 ft 0 in)      Jonathan Edwards (GBR)    

Continental records

Africa     17.37 m (56 ft 11​3⁄4 in)      Tarik Bouguetaïb (MAR)    
Asia     17.59 m (57 ft 8​1⁄2 in)      Yanxi Li (CHN)    

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triple_jump

{A European wins the record in triple jump.}

--------------


High jump

 

 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High_jump

Men (absolute)

Rank Mark Athlete Date Place Ref
1 2.45 m (8 ft 0​14 in)  Javier Sotomayor (CUB) 27 July 1993 Salamanca
2 2.43 m (7 ft 11​12 in)  Mutaz Essa Barshim (QAT) 5 September 2014 Brussels
3 2.42 m (7 ft 11​14 in)  Patrik Sjöberg (SWE) 30 June 1987 Stockholm
 Carlo Thränhardt (FRG) 26 February 1988 Berlin (indoor)
 Ivan Ukhov (RUS) 25 February 2014 Prague (indoor)
 Bohdan Bondarenko (UKR) 14 June 2014 New York City
7 2.41 m (7 ft 10​34 in)  Igor Paklin (URS) 4 September 1985 Kobe
8 2.40 m (7 ft 10​14 in)  Rudolf Povarnitsyn (URS) 11 August 1985 Donetsk
 Sorin Matei (ROM) 20 June 1990 Bratislava
 Hollis Conway (USA) 10 March 1991 Seville (indoor)
 Charles Austin (USA) 7 August 1991 Zürich
 Vyacheslav Voronin (RUS) 5 August 2000 London
 Stefan Holm (SWE) 6 March 2005 Madrid (indoor)
 Aleksey Dmitrik (RUS) 8 February 2014 Arnstadt (indoor)
 Derek Drouin (CAN) [15] 25 April 2014 Des Moines







-----------------


Javier Sotomayor

Javier Sotomayor Sanabria; born October 13, 1967) is a Cuban former track and field athlete, who specialized in the high jump and is the current world record holder. The 1992 Olympic champion, he was the dominant high jumper of the 1990s; his personal best of 2.45 m (8 ft 1/2 in) makes him the only person ever to have cleared eight feet.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Javier_Sotomayor


------

OLYMPICS; Sotomayor, Banned for Drug, Is Out of Games


 
Javier Sotomayor, the Cuban world record-holder in the high jump and the only person to leap eight feet, was suspended yesterday for a positive drug test and barred from competing in the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, Australia, track and field's international governing body announced.

https://www.nytimes.com/2000/06/28/sports/olympics-sotomayor-banned-for-drug-is-out-of-games.html

---------


Long jump




Men

Rank Mark Wind (m/s) Athlete Date Place Ref
1 8.95 m (29 ft 4​14 in) 0.3 Mike Powell (USA) 30 August 1991 Tokyo
2 8.90 m (29 ft 2​14 in) A 2.0  Bob Beamon (USA) 18 October 1968 Mexico City
3 8.87 m (29 ft 1 in) −0.2 Carl Lewis (USA) 30 August 1991 Tokyo
4 8.86 m (29 ft 0​34 in) A 1.9  Robert Emmiyan (URS) 22 May 1987 Tsakhkadzor
5 8.74 m (28 ft 8 in) 1.4  Larry Myricks (USA) 18 July 1988 Indianapolis
8.74 m (28 ft 8 in) A 2.0  Erick Walder (USA) 2 April 1994 El Paso
8.74 m (28 ft 8 in) −1.2 Dwight Phillips (USA) 7 June 2009 Eugene
8 8.73 m (28 ft 7​12 in) 1.2  Irving Saladino (PAN) 24 May 2008 Hengelo
9 8.71 m (28 ft 6​34 in) 1.9  Iván Pedroso (CUB) 18 July 1995 Salamanca
8.71 m (28 ft 6​34 in) indoor  Sebastian Bayer (GER) 8 March 2009 Torino
11 8.66 m (28 ft 4​34 in) 1.6  Louis Tsatoumas (GRE) 2 June 2007 Kalamata
12 8.65 m (28 ft 4​12 in) A 1.3  Luvo Manyonga (RSA) 22 April 2017 Potchefstroom [14]
13 8.63 m (28 ft 3​34 in) 0.5  Kareem Streete-Thompson (USA) 4 June 1994 Linz
14 8.62 m (28 ft 3​14 in) 0.7  James Beckford (JAM) 5 April 1997 Orlando
15 8.59 m (28 ft 2 in) indoor  Miguel Pate (USA) 4 March 2002 New York City
16 8.58 m (28 ft 1​34 in) 1.8  Jarrion Lawson (USA) 3 July 2016 Eugene [15]
17 8.56 m (28 ft 1 in) 1.3  Yago Lamela (ESP) 24 June 1999 Torino
8.56 m (28 ft 1 in) 0.2  Aleksandr Menkov (RUS) 16 August 2013 Moscow
19 8.54 m (28 ft 0 in) 0.9  Lutz Dombrowski (GDR) 28 July 1980 Moscow
8.54 m (28 ft 0 in) 1.7  Mitchell Watt (AUS) 29 July 2011 Stockholm
21 8.53 m (27 ft 11​34 in) 1.2  Jaime Jefferson (CUB) 12 May 1990 Havana

























----------

{Notice how the top 3 people who hold records in long jump, how 2 tested positive for steroids.
We can see see how they train together and even take steroids together , and this is how you can get uniformed results.}

-----------

Mike Powell threatens to 'slap' anyone who suggests resetting world records


Mike Powell has warned he would "slap" anyone who tried to take his world record from him amid the fall-out from the ongoing athletics doping scandal.
The American long jumper broke Bob Beamon's 23-year-old mark when he leapt out to 8.95 metres at the 1991 World Championships in Tokyo.


 http://www.espn.com/athletics/story/_/id/14587497/long-jump-world-record-holder-mike-powell-vows-slap-anyone-suggests-resetting-world-records

-----------


Carl Lewis & Steroids: Some Speculations about this Track and Field Athlete


https://steroidssaleguide.com/carl-lewis-steroids-some-speculations-about-this-track-and-field-athlete/


-------------



100 metres

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/100_metres#Olympic_medallists

  Men

 Games                 Gold                               Silver                                      Bronze

1896 Athens
details      Thomas Burke (USA)      Fritz Hofmann (GER)      Francis Lane (USA)  Alajos Szokolyi (HUN)
1900 Paris
details      Frank Jarvis (USA)      Walter Tewksbury (USA)      Stan Rowley (AUS)
1904 St. Louis
details      Archie Hahn (USA)      Nathaniel Cartmell (USA)      William Hogenson (USA)
1908 London
details      Reggie Walker (RSA)      James Rector (USA)      Robert Kerr (CAN)
1912 Stockholm
details      Ralph Craig (USA)      Alvah Meyer (USA)      Donald Lippincott (USA)
1920 Antwerp
details      Charley Paddock (USA)      Morris Kirksey (USA)      Harry Edward (GBR)
1924 Paris
details      Harold Abrahams (GBR)      Jackson Scholz (USA)      Arthur Porritt, Baron Porritt (NZL)
1928 Amsterdam
details      Percy Williams (CAN)      Jack London (GBR)      Georg Lammers (GER)
1932 Los Angeles
details      Eddie Tolan (USA)      Ralph Metcalfe (USA)      Arthur Jonath (GER)
1936 Berlin
details      Jesse Owens (USA)      Ralph Metcalfe (USA)      Tinus Osendarp (NED)
1948 London
details      Harrison Dillard (USA)      Barney Ewell (USA)      Lloyd LaBeach (PAN)
1952 Helsinki
details      Lindy Remigino (USA)      Herb McKenley (JAM)      McDonald Bailey (GBR)
1956 Melbourne
details      Bobby Morrow (USA)      Thane Baker (USA)      Hector Hogan (AUS)
1960 Rome
details      Armin Hary (EUA)      Dave Sime (USA)      Peter Radford (GBR)
1964 Tokyo
details      Bob Hayes (USA)      Enrique Figuerola (CUB)      Harry Jerome (CAN)
1968 Mexico City
details      Jim Hines (USA)      Lennox Miller (JAM)      Charles Greene (USA)
1972 Munich
details      Valeriy Borzov (URS)      Robert Taylor (USA)      Lennox Miller (JAM)
1976 Montreal
details      Hasely Crawford (TRI)      Don Quarrie (JAM)      Valeriy Borzov (URS)
1980 Moscow
details      Allan Wells (GBR)      Silvio Leonard (CUB)      Petar Petrov (BUL)
1984 Los Angeles
details      Carl Lewis (USA)      Sam Graddy (USA)      Ben Johnson (CAN)
1988 Seoul
details      Carl Lewis (USA)      Linford Christie (GBR)      Calvin Smith (USA)
1992 Barcelona
details      Linford Christie (GBR)      Frankie Fredericks (NAM)      Dennis Mitchell (USA)
1996 Atlanta
details      Donovan Bailey (CAN)      Frankie Fredericks (NAM)      Ato Boldon (TRI)
2000 Sydney
details      Maurice Greene (USA)      Ato Boldon (TRI)      Obadele Thompson (BAR)
2004 Athens
details      Justin Gatlin (USA)      Francis Obikwelu (POR)      Maurice Greene (USA)
2008 Beijing
details      Usain Bolt (JAM)      Richard Thompson (TRI)      Walter Dix (USA)
2012 London
details      Usain Bolt (JAM)      Yohan Blake (JAM)      Justin Gatlin (USA)
2016 Rio de Janeiro
details      Usain Bolt (JAM)      Justin Gatlin (USA)      Andre De Grasse (CAN)



Women

Rank     Time     Wind (m/s)     Athlete                            Nation       Date                Location

1     10.49     0.0[a]     Florence Griffith-Joyner      United States     16 July 1988     Indianapolis
2     10.64     +1.2     Carmelita Jeter      United States     20 September 2009     Shanghai
3     10.65 [A]     +1.1     Marion Jones      United States     12 September 1998     Johannesburg
4     10.70     +0.6     Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce      Jamaica     29 June 2012     Kingston
+0.3     Elaine Thompson      Jamaica     1 July 2016     Kingston     [34]
6     10.73     +2.0     Christine Arron      France     19 August 1998     Budapest
7     10.74     +1.3     Merlene Ottey      Jamaica     7 September 1996     Milan
+1.0     English Gardner      United States     3 July 2016     Eugene     [29]
9     10.75     +0.4     Kerron Stewart      Jamaica     10 July 2009     Rome
10     10.76     +1.7     Evelyn Ashford      United States     22 August 1984     Zürich


------------

Usain Bolt stripped of Olympic gold medal after Jamaican team-mate Nesta Carter fails drugs test – but he vows to appeal


https://www.telegraph.co.uk/athletics/2017/01/25/usain-bolt-stripped-olympic-gold-medal-nesta-carter-banned-drugs/

---------


USAIN BOLT SHUTS DOWN A REPORTER WHO ASKS ABOUT DRUGS IN 100m Finals PRESS CONFERENCE

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JK-uwtnIfFU

-------------------

Usain Bolt


 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Usain_Bolt#Records


 Statistics

Personal bests

Event     Time (seconds)     Venue     Date     Records     Notes

100 metres     9.58     Berlin, Germany     16 August 2009     WR     Also has the second fastest time (9.63) and shares the third fastest time of 9.69 with Tyson Gay and Yohan Blake. Bolt's 9.63 is the Olympic record, set at the 2012 games.

150 metres     14.35     Manchester, United Kingdom     17 May 2009     WB[note 1]     He ran the last 100 m in 8.70, the fastest ever recorded time over a 100 m distance. This would equal an average speed of 41.38 km/h (25.71 mph).


200 metres     19.19     Berlin, Germany     20 August 2009     WR     Also holds the Olympic record with 19.30, which was then (2008) a world record.


300 metres     30.97     Ostrava, Czech Republic     27 May 2010     NR     This is the third fastest time, behind Wayde van Niekerk 30.81 & Michael Johnson 30.85A. The event is not recognised by the IAAF.


400 metres     45.28     Kingston, Jamaica     5 May 2007         [1]
4 × 100 metres relay     36.84     London, England     11 August 2012     WR     Shared with Yohan Blake, Michael Frater and Nesta Carter.


---------------

 {We see how the number 1 black sprinter (Usain Bolt) for the 100 meter dash, 200 meter dash and 400 meter dash, that Bolt's team tested positive for steroids. We can see how the number 1 black female sprinter ( Florence Griffith-Joyner)  for the 100 meter dash and 200 meter dash, also had taken steroids while at the Olympics.}


-------------

Florence Griffith Joyner


 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Florence_Griffith_Joyner


Died September 21, 1998 (aged 38)

100 m Indianapolis July 16, 1988 Quarter-final 10.49 0.0 WR

200 m Seoul September 29, 1988 Final 21.34 +1.3 WR


Allegations of performance-enhancing drug use

Darrell Robinson, a former teammate of Griffith Joyner, claimed that he sold her 10 c.c. of HGH for $2,000 in 1988. He said Joyner told him: "if you want to make $1 million, you've got to invest some thousands." Robinson also claimed to receive steroids from coach Bob Kersee, and said he saw Carl Lewis inject himself with drugs he believed to be testosterone. Robinson never provided any evidence for his allegations and was shunned by the athletics community, leading to the premature end of his career. Griffith Joyner retired from competitive track and field after her Olympic triumph in She was repeatedly tested during competition, and she passed all of these drug tests.




---------------


Tyson Gay's failed drugs test was for banned steroid

• American sprinter faces two-year athletics ban
• 'I will take whatever punishment I get like a man'


https://www.theguardian.com/sport/2013/aug/23/tyson-gay-drugs-steroid-wada



-------------------



Marion Jones

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marion_Jones

Marion Lois Jones (born October 12, 1975), also known as Marion Jones-Thompson, is an American former world champion track and field athlete and a former professional basketball player for Tulsa Shock in the WNBA. She won three gold medals and two bronze medals at the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, Australia, but was later stripped of the titles after admitting to steroid use. Jones did retain her three gold medals as a world champion from 1997 and 1999.


-----------

How athletics is still scarred by the reign of the chemical sisters




 At the time, Ma claimed his athletes’ performances were being boosted by the consumption of  turtle blood. But shortly before the 2000 Olympics, China withdrew 27 athletes from their Olympic team, including six runners trained by Ma who had tested positive for erythropoietin, the banned blood doping drug better known as EPO. Ma was also fired from the Chinese coaching staff.

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sport/olympics/article-2184608/How-athletics-scarred-reign-chemical-sisters.html#ixzz5Ccx3MocM

----------


800 metres



Rank     Time     Athlete     Nation     Date     Location    

1     1:40.91     David Rudisha      Kenya     9 August 2012     London    
2     1:41.11     Wilson Kipketer      Denmark     24 August 1997     Cologne    
3     1:41.73     Sebastian Coe      United Kingdom     10 June 1981     Florence    
1:41.73     Nijel Amos      Botswana     9 August 2012     London    
5     1:41.77     Joaquim Cruz      Brazil     26 August 1984     Cologne    
6     1:42.23     Abubaker Kaki Khamis      Sudan     4 June 2010     Oslo    
7     1:42.28     Sammy Koskei      Kenya     26 August 1984     Cologne    
8     1:42.34     Wilfred Bungei      Kenya     8 September 2002     Rieti    
9     1:42.37     Mohammed Aman      Ethiopia     6 September 2013     Brussels    
10     1:42.47     Yuriy Borzakovskiy      Russia     24 August 2001     Brussels    
11     1:42.51     Amel Tuka      Bosnia and Herzegovina     17 July 2015     Fontvieille    
12     1:42.53     Timothy Kitum      Kenya     9 August 2012     London    
Pierre-Ambroise Bosse      France     18 July 2014     Fontvieille    
14     1:42.55     André Bucher       Switzerland     17 August 2001     Zürich    
15     1:42.58     Vebjørn Rodal      Norway     31 July 1996     Atlanta    
16     1:42.60     Johnny Gray      United States     28 August 1985     Koblenz    
17     1:42.61     Taoufik Makhloufi      Algeria     15 August 2016     Rio de Janeiro    
18     1:42.62     Patrick Ndururi      Kenya     17 August 2001     Zurich    
19     1:42.67     Alfred Kirwa Yego      Kenya     6 September 2009     Rieti        



 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/800_metres

----------------


Kenya faces fresh anti-doping crisis following surprise Wada move


 http://www.bbc.com/sport/athletics/36275649

The Olympic participation of another powerhouse athletics nation - Russia - is already in doubt.
In November, the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) banned the country's track and field athletes from international competition following allegations of systemic state-sponsored cheating.



Kenyan doping
As of January 2016, 18 Kenyan athletes were suspended for doping
Those 18 athletes are serving bans totalling 55 years
The best known is Rita Jeptoo, who has won the Boston and Chicago marathons
Lilian Moraa Mariita was given the longest ban - eight years for taking steroids


---------

 Dark cloud of doping hanging over Kenyan athletics


















 

Br Colm O’Connell outlines why he fears for the previously clean reputation of Kenyan distance running


 https://www.irishtimes.com/sport/other-sports/dark-cloud-of-doping-hanging-over-kenyan-athletics-1.1996620

-----------


Suspended Kenyan says doping is common



https://www.independent.co.uk/sport/olympics/athletics/suspended-kenyan-says-doping-is-common-8031835.html

---------

KENYAN RUNNING COACH REVEALS SECRET TRAINING METHODS


 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jkvZ7kuBaoQ

-------



1500 metres


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1500_metres


Men

    Correct as of July 2017.

Rank     Result     Athlete     Nation     Date     Location    

1     3:26.00     Hicham El Guerrouj      Morocco     14 July 1998     Rome    
2     3:26.34     Bernard Lagat      Kenya     24 August 2001     Brussels    
3     3:26.69     Asbel Kiprop      Kenya     17 July 2015     Monaco    
4     3:27.37     Noureddine Morceli      Algeria     12 July 1995     Nice    
5     3:27.64     Silas Kiplagat      Kenya     18 July 2014     Monaco    
6     3:28.12     Noah Ngeny      Kenya     11 August 2000     Zürich    
7     3:28.75     Taoufik Makhloufi      Algeria     17 July 2015     Monaco    
8     3:28.79     Abdalaati Iguider      Morocco     17 July 2015     Monaco    
9     3:28.80     Elijah Manangoi      Kenya     21 July 2017     Monaco    
10     3:28.81     Mo Farah      Great Britain     19 July 2013     Monaco    
3:28.81     Ronald Kwemoi      Kenya     18 July 2014     Monaco    
12     3:28.95     Fermín Cacho      Spain     13 August 1997     Zürich    
13     3:28.98     Mehdi Baala      France     5 September 2003     Brussels    
14     3:29.02     Daniel Kipchirchir Komen      Kenya     14 July 2006     Rome    
15     3:29.10     Timothy Cheruiyot      Kenya     21 July 2017     Monaco    
16     3:29.14     Rashid Ramzi      Bahrain     14 July 2006     Rome    
17     3:29.18     Venuste Niyongabo      Burundi     22 August 1997     Brussels    
18     3:29.29     William Chirchir      Kenya     24 August 2001     Brussels    
19     3:29.46     Said Aouita      Morocco     23 August 1985     Berlin    
20     3:29.46     Daniel Komen      Kenya     16 August 1997     Monaco    
21     3:29.47     Augustine Choge      Kenya     14 June 2009     Berlin    
22     3:29.50     Caleb Ndiku      Kenya     19 July 2013     Monaco    
23     3:29.51     Ali Saidi-Sief      Algeria     4 July 2001     Brussels    
24     3:29.53     Amine Laalou      Morocco     22 July 2010     Monaco    
25     3:29.58     Ayanleh Souleiman      Djibouti     18 July 2014     Monaco    

----------------

Doug Robinson: The big reset: Track might erase the record book and start over


2017


https://www.deseretnews.com/article/865683972/The-big-reset-Track-might-erase-the-record-book-and-start-over.html

Performance-enhancing drugs have cast cynicism and doubt on sports ranging from baseball and cycling to track and field and swimming. They have rendered the record books almost meaningless, especially in sports whose fans revel in the statistics.
Now track and field officials are considering drastic action: They might tear up the record book and start over. They might pretend some performances never happened.
The IAAF — track and field’s international governing body — is considering a proposal that would erase any record that was set before 2005. Why 2005? That’s when the IAAF began to store blood and urine samples that could be retested years later as new, more advanced tests are developed.
Of the 42 men’s and women’s records for Olympic events (plus the mile), the reset would wipe out 28 of them — about two-thirds. This includes Hicham El Guerrouj’s 1,500-meter mark (1998), Mike Powell’s long jump record (1991), Paula Radcliffe’s marathon record (2003), Jackie Joyner Kersee’s heptathlon mark (1988), and the highly suspicious marks produced by the late Florence Griffith Joyner in the 100- and 200-meter dashes (1988). It also would erase history’s only 8-foot high jump, by Javier Sotomayor (1993), and history’s only 60-foot triple jump, by Jonathan Edwards (1995).
With the constant advancement of drug-testing techniques (made necessary by the constant advancement of protocols to beat the tests and the development of new drugs), athletes are being busted years after their offense. About two dozen athletes from five sports have been caught after their frozen blood and urine samples were retested during the four years since the London Olympics.
The IOC reported this year that 31 athletes from the 2008 Beijing Olympics have tested positive through retesting. One of them was Nesta Carter, who tested positive for using a banned substance in the 2008 Olympics, costing Jamaica (and teammate Usain Bolt) a gold medal in the 4 x 100 relay.
The retesting procedures mean cheaters will never rest easy; they’ll always wonder if and when their deception will be discovered.

-----------


Turkey’s Asli Cakir Alptekin stripped of Olympic 1500m title for doping


 https://www.theguardian.com/sport/2015/aug/17/asli-cakir-alptekin-london-2012-1500m-stripped-gold-medal-doping

---------

5000 metres

 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/5000_metres


 All-time top 25
See also: 5000 metres world record progression

Men

Pos     Time     Athlete     Venue     Date    

1     12:37.35      Kenenisa Bekele (ETH)     Hengelo     31 May 2004
2     12:39.36      Haile Gebrselassie (ETH)     Helsinki     13 June 1998
3     12:39.74      Daniel Komen (KEN)     Brussels     22 August 1997
4     12:46.53      Eliud Kipchoge (KEN)     Rome     2 July 2004
5     12:46.81      Dejen Gebremeskel (ETH)     Paris     6 July 2012    
6     12:47.04      Sileshi Sihine (ETH)     Rome     2 July 2004
7     12:47.53      Hagos Gebrhiwet (ETH)     Paris     6 July 2012    
8     12:48.64      Isaiah Kiplangat Koech (KEN)     Paris     6 July 2012    
9     12:48.66      Isaac Songok (KEN)     Zürich     18 August 2006
10     12:48.77      Yenew Alamirew (ETH)     Paris     6 July 2012    
11     12:48.81      Stephen Cherono (KEN)     Ostrava     12 June 2003
12     12:49.04      Thomas Pkemei Longosiwa (KEN)     Paris     6 July 2012    
13     12:49.28      Brahim Lahlafi (MAR)     Brussels     25 August 2000
14     12:49.50      John Kipkoech (KEN)     Paris     6 July 2012    
15     12:49.71      Mohammed Mourhit (BEL)     Brussels     25 August 2000
16     12:49.87      Paul Tergat (KEN)     Zürich     13 August 1997
17     12:50.24      Hicham El Guerrouj (MAR)     Ostrava     12 June 2003
18     12:50.25      Abderrahim Goumri (MAR)     Brussels     26 August 2005
19     12:50.55      Moses Ndiema Masai (KEN)     Berlin     1 June 2008
20     12:50.72      Moses Ndiema Kipsiro (UGA)     Brussels     14 September 2007
21     12:50.80      Salah Hissou (MAR)     Rome     5 June 1996
22     12:50.86      Ali Saïdi-Sief (ALG)     Rome     30 June 2000
23     12:51.00      Joseph Ebuya (KEN)     Brussels     14 September 2007
24     12:51.34      Edwin Soi (KEN)     Monaco     19 July 2013
25     12:51.45      Vincent Kiprop Chepkok (KEN)     Doha     14 May 2010

------------


Ethiopia to impose lifetime bans on drug cheats


Ethiopia, one of five countries the IAAF says is in “critical care” over its drug-testing systems, will impose lifetime bans on drug cheats, the new president of the Ethiopian Athletics Federation (EAF) said on Wednesday (local time).
The Horn of Africa country has for many years dominated distance running along with neighbouring Kenya, but it had its credibility questioned this year when six of its athletes came under investigation for doping.
The EAF subsequently announced that it would carry out tests on up to 200 athletes.
Distance-running great Haile Gebrselassie, who was elected head of the EAF last month amid discontent over mismanagement, told Reuters his administration has adopted a “zero tolerance” approach towards doping.
“Our stand is no excuse towards someone who has cheated. As of today, any athlete who has offended will be hit by a life ban,” he said.
The move means Ethiopian athletes who fail tests and are subject to a four-year ban from December 28 onwards will no longer be able to represent the country in any competition.
The punishment is much stricter than the one currently imposed by the International Olympic Committee whose rules stipulate that athletes caught doping can face four-year bans but after serving it they are eligible to compete in any international event, including the Olympics.
Gebrselassie said his aim was to convince the sport’s world governing body that Ethiopia was serious in tackling doping and for it to be removed from the list of countries identified by IAAF president Sebastian Coe as in need of “critical care”.

Kenya, Morocco, Ukraine and Belarus are other nations in that category.


http://taylorhooton.org/ethiopia-to-impose-lifetime-bans-on-drug-cheats/

----------------


10,000 metres


 Rank     Time     Athlete     Date     Place     Ref

1     26:17.53      Kenenisa Bekele (ETH)     26 August 2005     Brussels   
2     26:22.75      Haile Gebrselassie (ETH)     1 June 1998     Hengelo   
3     26:27.85      Paul Tergat (KEN)     22 August 1997     Brussels   
4     26:30.03      Nicholas Kemboi (KEN)     5 September 2003     Brussels   
5     26:30.74      Abebe Dinkesa (ETH)     29 May 2005     Hengelo   
6     26:35.63      Micah Kogo (KEN)     25 August 2006     Brussels   
7     26:36.26      Paul Koech (KEN)     22 August 1997     Brussels


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/10,000_metres

---------

Marathon


 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marathon


 All-time lists

    Correct as of February 2018.

Men Rank     Time     Athlete     Country     Date     Place   

1     2:02:57     Dennis Kipruto Kimetto      Kenya     28 September 2014     Berlin   
2     2:03:03     Kenenisa Bekele      Ethiopia     25 September 2016     Berlin    
3     2:03:05     Eliud Kipchoge      Kenya     24 April 2016     London   
4     2:03:13     Emmanuel Mutai      Kenya     28 September 2014     Berlin   
Wilson Kipsang Kiprotich      Kenya     25 September 2016     Berlin    
6     2:03:38     Patrick Makau Musyoki      Kenya     25 September 2011     Berlin   
7     2:03:46     Guye Adola      Ethiopia     24 September 2017     Berlin    
8     2:03:51     Stanley Biwott      Kenya     24 April 2016     London   
9     2:03:59     Haile Gebrselassie      Ethiopia     28 September 2008     Berlin   
10     2:04:00     Mosinet Geremew      Ethiopia     26 January 2018     Dubai    
11     2:04:02     Leul Gebresilase      Ethiopia     26 January 2018     Dubai    
12     2:04:06     Tamirat Tola      Ethiopia     26 January 2018     Dubai    
Asefa Mengstu      Ethiopia     26 January 2018     Dubai    
14     2:04:08     Sisay Lemma      Ethiopia     26 January 2018     Dubai    
15     2:04:15     Geoffrey Mutai      Kenya     9 September 2012     Berlin   
Birhanu Legese      Ethiopia     26 January 2018     Dubai     [84]
17     2:04:23     Ayele Abshero      Ethiopia     27 January 2012     Dubai   
18     2:04:24     Tesfaye Abera      Ethiopia     22 January 2016     Dubai   
19     2:04:27     Duncan Kibet Kirong      Kenya     5 April 2009     Rotterdam   
James Kipsang Kwambai      Kenya     5 April 2009     Rotterdam   
21     2:04:28     Sammy Kirop Kitwara      Kenya     12 October 2014     Chicago   
22     2:04:32     Tsegaye Mekonnen      Ethiopia     24 January 2014     Dubai   
Dickson Kiptolo Chumba      Kenya     12 October 2014     Chicago   
24     2:04:33     Lemi Berhanu      Ethiopia     22 January 2016     Dubai   
25     2:04:38     Tsegay Kebede      Ethiopia     7 October 2012     Chicago   





 Olympic medalists

Men

Games     Gold     Silver     Bronze
1896 Athens
details      Spiridon Louis (GRE)      Charilaos Vasilakos (GRE)      Gyula Kellner (HUN)
1900 Paris
details      Michel Théato (FRA)[130]      Émile Champion (FRA)      Ernst Fast (SWE)
1904 St. Louis
details      Thomas Hicks (USA)      Albert Corey (USA)[131]      Arthur Newton (USA)
1908 London
details      Johnny Hayes (USA)      Charles Hefferon (RSA)      Joseph Forshaw (USA)
1912 Stockholm
details      Ken McArthur (RSA)      Christian Gitsham (RSA)      Gaston Strobino (USA)
1920 Antwerp
details      Hannes Kolehmainen (FIN)      Jüri Lossmann (EST)      Valerio Arri (ITA)
1924 Paris
details      Albin Stenroos (FIN)      Romeo Bertini (ITA)      Clarence DeMar (USA)
1928 Amsterdam
details      Boughera El Ouafi (FRA)      Manuel Plaza (CHI)      Martti Marttelin (FIN)
1932 Los Angeles
details      Juan Carlos Zabala (ARG)      Sam Ferris (GBR)      Armas Toivonen (FIN)
1936 Berlin
details      Sohn Kee-chung (JPN)[132]      Ernest Harper (GBR)      Nan Shoryu (JPN)[132]
1948 London
details      Delfo Cabrera (ARG)      Tom Richards (GBR)      Étienne Gailly (BEL)
1952 Helsinki
details      Emil Zátopek (TCH)      Reinaldo Gorno (ARG)      Gustaf Jansson (SWE)
1956 Melbourne
details      Alain Mimoun (FRA)      Franjo Mihalić (YUG)      Veikko Karvonen (FIN)
1960 Rome
details      Abebe Bikila (ETH)      Rhadi Ben Abdesselam (MAR)      Barry Magee (NZL)
1964 Tokyo
details      Abebe Bikila (ETH)      Basil Heatley (GBR)      Kokichi Tsuburaya (JPN)
1968 Mexico City
details      Mamo Wolde (ETH)      Kenji Kimihara (JPN)      Mike Ryan (NZL)
1972 Munich
details      Frank Shorter (USA)      Karel Lismont (BEL)      Mamo Wolde (ETH)
1976 Montreal
details      Waldemar Cierpinski (GDR)      Frank Shorter (USA)      Karel Lismont (BEL)
1980 Moscow
details      Waldemar Cierpinski (GDR)      Gerard Nijboer (NED)      Satymkul Dzhumanazarov (URS)
1984 Los Angeles
details      Carlos Lopes (POR)      John Treacy (IRL)      Charlie Spedding (GBR)
1988 Seoul
details      Gelindo Bordin (ITA)      Douglas Wakiihuri (KEN)      Ahmed Salah (DJI)
1992 Barcelona
details      Hwang Young-cho (KOR)      Koichi Morishita (JPN)      Stephan Freigang (GER)
1996 Atlanta
details      Josia Thugwane (RSA)      Lee Bong-ju (KOR)      Erick Wainaina (KEN)
2000 Sydney
details      Gezahegne Abera (ETH)      Erick Wainaina (KEN)      Tesfaye Tola (ETH)
2004 Athens
details      Stefano Baldini (ITA)      Mebrahtom Keflezighi (USA)      Vanderlei de Lima (BRA)
2008 Beijing
details      Samuel Wanjiru (KEN)      Jaouad Gharib (MAR)      Tsegay Kebede (ETH)
2012 London
details      Stephen Kiprotich (UGA)      Abel Kirui (KEN)      Wilson Kipsang Kiprotich (KEN)
2016 Rio de Janeiro
details      Eliud Kipchoge (KEN)      Feyisa Lelisa (ETH)      Galen Rupp (USA)



--------


Open Era tennis records – men's singles


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_Era_tennis_records_%E2%80%93_men%27s_singles

{We can see that it is mostly Western and European countries are winning the men's tennis records.}

----------------------


All-time tennis records – women's singles

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/All-time_tennis_records_%E2%80%93_women%27s_singles


Grand Slam tournament records

Grand Slam Singles totals

    Titles     #

1     Australia Margaret Court     24

2     United States Serena Williams     23

3     West Germany Steffi Graf     22
4     United States Helen Wills Moody     19
5     United States Chris Evert     18
United States Martina Navratilova
7     United States Billie Jean King     12
8     United States Maureen Connolly     9
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia/United States Monica Seles
10     Norway/United States Molla Mallory     8
France Suzanne Lenglen
   
    Finals     #

1     United States Chris Evert     34
2     Czechoslovakia/United States Martina Navratilova     32
3     West Germany Steffi Graf     31
4     Australia Margaret Court     29
United States Serena Williams
6     United States Helen Wills Moody     22
7     United States Doris Hart     18
United States Billie Jean King
Australia Evonne Goolagong Cawley
10     United States Helen Jacobs     16
United States Venus Williams
   
    Semifinals     #

1     United States Chris Evert     52
2     Czechoslovakia/United States Martina Navratilova     44
3     West Germany Steffi Graf     37
4     Australia Margaret Court     36
5     United States Serena Williams     34
6     United States Billie Jean King     26
7     United States Doris Hart     25
United States Louise Brough
9     United States Helen Wills Moody     22
Australia Evonne Goolagong Cawley
United States Venus Williams
   
    Quarterfinals     #

1     United States Chris Evert     54
2     Czechoslovakia/United States Martina Navratilova     53
3     United States Serena Williams     47
4     Australia Margaret Court     43
5     West Germany Steffi Graf     42
6     United States Billie Jean King     40
7     United States Venus Williams     38
8     Spain Arantxa Sánchez Vicario     34
9     United States Doris Hart     32
10     Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia/United States Monica Seles     31
United States Lindsay Davenport


---------------

Serena Williams and Steroids: Accusations and the Evidence of Use


https://steroidssaleguide.com/serena-williams-and-steroids-accusations-and-the-evidence-of-use/


--------------------


Here's why it's no surprise that a Russian hack revealed Simone Biles and the Williams sisters used 'banned' drugs


 http://www.businessinsider.com/russian-hack-serena-venus-williams-simone-biles-exemptions-banned-drugs-2016-9


-------------



{The number one black Tennis player for women is on steroids.

The number one black high jumper and the number one black long jumper are on steroids as well.

Usain Bolt won first place for 100 meters and 200 meters, his team was found to be on steroids.

 Every single men's running event listed in the following article below, has a problem with the first place winner and banned illegal substances, and they are all of African descent.}




 ---------

Athletics at the Summer Olympics


100 Meters - Illegal substances on the team (steroids)
200 Meters - Illegal substances on the team (steroids)
800 Meters -  Steroids
1500 Meters - Steroids
5,000 Meters - Steroids
10,000 Meters - Steroids
Marathon - Steroids



 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Athletics_at_the_Summer_Olympics

-----------

{The Kenyans in the 5,000 m race, 10,000 m race and the marathons are tainted by steroid use.


We would now like to strip all these titles of these users of banned and illegal substances, and throw these titles into the steroid, drug and GMO steroid category of athletes. If you are going to use some of these drugs, you might as well genetically modify your body with other types of banned chemicals, to where there will be no end to these new steroids coming out on the market. I am glad I made this article, because many people had no idea this type of cheating is going on in the athletic community. 

What if you could take a steroid or chemical so that when you reproduce, that steroid or chemical would make your offspring and children stronger when they are born?

We can see a pattern of steroid use, and why many African athletes that claim to be number one in an athletic field, were actually illegitimate steroid users that would lie on their use of using illegal substances in legitimate tournaments.

Now we can see that the number one black golfer named Tiger Woods, also has now tested positive for illegal substances.}

-------------


List of golfers with most PGA Tour wins


Rank   Name  Year of birth and death   Country  Wins   Majors  Winning span (years)

1     Sam Snead H     1912–2002      United States     82     7     1936–1965     30
2     Tiger Woods     1975–      United States     79     14     1996–2013     18
3     Jack Nicklaus H     1940–      United States     73     18     1962–1986     25
4     Ben Hogan H     1912–1997      United States     64     9     1938–1959     22
5     Arnold Palmer H     1929–2016      United States     62     7     1955–1973     19
6     Byron Nelson H     1912–2006      United States     52     5     1935–1951     17


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_golfers_with_most_PGA_Tour_wins


{Most of the really good professional golf players were born in the early 1900s, such as Sam Snead, who currently has more PGA tour wins than even Tiger Woods.
Many of these good players did not have a chance to show up Tiger Woods on how to play golf. Even the golf club technology in the early 1900s was not as good as the golf clubs of today. Sam Snead was not on steroids either, such as how Tiger Woods was caught cheating and having illegal substances in his body.}


--------------------

Two of five drugs in Tiger Woods's system on his arrest banned by PGA Tour

https://www.theguardian.com/sport/2017/aug/15/tiger-woods-five-different-drugs-arrested-toxicology-report


------------------

Tiger Woods paid Anthony Galea $76K for 14 visits, new book says

http://www.golf.com/tour-and-news/tiger-woods-paid-anthony-galea-76k-14-visits-new-book-says


------------


Report: Cowboys' Randy Gregory facing one-year NFL suspension

https://sports.yahoo.com/news/report-cowboys-randy-gregory-facing-one-year-nfl-suspension-180846225.html

--------------

Rams running back Trey Watts suspended indefinitely for banned substance

http://fox2now.com/2015/11/04/rams-running-back-trey-watts-suspended-indefinitely-for-drug-violation/

---------------

{Many of the claimed great black running backs, receivers, batters and fighters were even found to be on steroids, maybe we should have a steroid league for athletes. However, it is not good that athletes use these substances that can deform your body and cause genetic damage to your offspring. It is really sad how some of the most athletic people in the world have damaged their hearts, organs, their DNA and possibly their offspring if they choose to have children. We must ask what many of these  banned substances will do to the human gene pool as well, when people decide to reproduce after taking these banned illegal substances for many years.}

---------------

Jaguars WR Justin Blackmon suspended for rest of 2013 season

https://www.cbssports.com/nfl/news/jaguars-wr-justin-blackmon-suspended-for-rest-of-2013-season/


------------------


Jon Jones removed from UFC 200 for possible drug violation; what happens next?

https://sports.yahoo.com/news/jon-jones-removed-from-ufc-200-for-possible-drug-violation-what-happens-next-044421271.html


--------------------

Kimbo Slice: Did Steroids Play A Part In His Tragic Death?

Just two months before his shocking death, Kimbo Slice tested positive for steroid use after the Bellator 149 fight. Could using steroids have been the reason his heart failed him at such a young age?


http://hollywoodlife.com/2016/06/07/kimbo-slice-steroids-tested-positive-heart-failure-death/

------------


Ervin Santana suspended 80 games after testing positive for steroids

https://sports.yahoo.com/blogs/mlb-big-league-stew/ervin-santana-suspended-80-games-after-testing-positive-for-steroids-205302969.html

-------------

Packers’ Guion suspended for the first four games of 2017 season

https://www.foxsports.com/wisconsin/story/green-bay-packers-letroy-guion-suspended-nfl-performance-enhancing-drugs-030717

-------------

Report: Allonzo Trier tests positive for performance-enhancing drugs

http://www.tucsonnewsnow.com/story/34293580/report-allonzo-trier-tests-positive-for-performance-enhancing-drugs

---------------



Athletes Banned For Steroid Use

Dwain Chambers

https://young.scot/information/body/athletes-banned-for-steroid-use/

---------------


The 15 Biggest Steroid, P.E.D., and Doping Scandals in Sports History



Rashid Ramzi, Track and Field

Ramzi showed that he was one of the elite athletes in his sport after winning the 800- and 1500-meter races at the 2005 World Championships, becoming the first man to ever win both events at the competition. A few years later, he won a gold medal at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing—the first ever for the nation of Bahrain—but that accomplishment soon was taken away after Ramzi tested positive for the banned blood-boosting substance CERA, and was stripped of his medal.


Manny Ramirez, Baseball

Ramirez is considered to be one of the best hitters in baseball history, but he also has had connections to performance-enhancing drugs. Ramirez was suspended for 50 games in 2009 after violating baseball’s drug policy for using human chorionic gonadotropin, which stimulates more testosterone production, while with the Los Angeles Dodgers. Early in the 2011 season, Ramirez violated the policy again and faced a 100-game ban, but he opted to retire instead.





Dee Gordon, Baseball

Gordon’s penalty for violating the MLB’s performance-enhancing drug policy may not be one of the “biggest scandals ever,” but it’s darkly symbolic for the wider sports world. Gordon is not considered a slugger by any stretch of the imagination—the slender second baseman weighs just 170lbs—and his positive test shows that it’s not just about power and home runs when it comes to using P.E.D.s.


Justin Gatlin, Track and Field

Marion Jones, Track and Field

Barry Bonds (Allegedly), Baseball

https://www.mensjournal.com/sports/15-biggest-steroid-ped-and-doping-scandals-sports-history/

--------------


Everyone’s Juicing

Latest raids of undercover steroid labs suggest the market for steroids goes way beyond the world of elite athletes.


https://www.propublica.org/article/raids-steroid-labs-suggest-market-for-steroids-beyond-elite-athletes

Earlier this month, the Drug Enforcement Administration announced that it had busted 16 underground labs and seized 134,000 steroid tablets and pills, 8,200 liters of injectable steroid liquid (that’s 140 kegs worth), and 1,400 pounds of the raw powder from which steroids are made. In Arizona alone, four labs and 150,000 doses of all types were taken by DEA agents in an undercover operation that spanned 20 states and four foreign countries.

There are, clearly, a lot of steroids out in the world. Investigators suspect there are hundreds more labs churning out performance-enhancing drugs. According to the DEA, most of the material used to make steroids isn’t even in the U.S. – it’s in China. As big as it was, the DEA inquiry offers a view through the smallest of keyholes of this illicit business.

One reasonable inference from the amount of steroids seized might be: there must be a heck of a lot of athletes who are doping. And that’s true.

This month, the British Parliament released a previously unpublished study by the World Anti-Doping Agency that used anonymous surveys to estimate the prevalence of doping at some recent competitions. It estimated that between 29 and 34 percent of the athletes at the 2011 world championships in track and field in Daegu, South Korea used performance-enhancing drugs that season. As many as half of the competitors at the 2011 Pan-Arab Games in Doha, Qatar had recently juiced, the study found. (I was at those Pan-Arab Games, and privy to the barely noted fact that nine gold medals were stripped before the event even ended.)

--------------


{Synthol use is big over in the Middle East.}


----------------


Clean and jerk

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clean_and_jerk#World_records

105+ kg     Hossein Rezazadeh     263.5 kilograms (581 lb)

{The current record is held by a Persian (Steroids).}


-------------------

Hossein Rezazadeh


In September 2008, Rezazadeh was named manager and head coach of Iran's national weightlifting team. In January 2009, he was blamed for positive results of the steroid tests of four Iranian weightlifters. Later on, one of the team members, Saeid Alihosseini accused him of using steroids in 2006. Rezazadeh has publicly vowed to fight doping in weightlifting.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hossein_Rezazadeh

-------------------



List of Olympic medalists in fencing (men)


Sabre, individual

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1896 Athens
details
Ioannis Georgiadis
 Greece
Telemachos Karakalos
 Greece
Holger Nielsen
 Denmark
1900 Paris
details
Georges de la Falaise
 France
Léon Thiébaut
 France
Siegfried Flesch
 Austria
1904 St. Louis
details
Manuel Díaz
 Cuba
William Grebe
 United States
Albertson Van Zo Post
 United States
1908 London
details
Jenő Fuchs
 Hungary
Béla Zulawsky
 Hungary
Vilém Goppold von Lobsdorf
 Bohemia
1912 Stockholm
details
Jenő Fuchs
 Hungary
Béla Békéssy
 Hungary
Ervin Mészáros
 Hungary
1920 Antwerp
details
Nedo Nadi
 Italy
Aldo Nadi
 Italy
Adrianus de Jong
 Netherlands
1924 Paris
details
Sándor Pósta
 Hungary
Roger Ducret
 France
János Garay
 Hungary
1928 Amsterdam
details
Odön Tersztyánszky
 Hungary
Attila Petschauer
 Hungary
Bino Bini
 Italy
1932 Los Angeles
details
György Piller
 Hungary
Giulio Gaudini
 Italy
Endre Kabos
 Hungary
1936 Berlin
details
Endre Kabos
 Hungary
Gustavo Marzi
 Italy
Aladár Gerevich
 Hungary
1948 London
details
Aladár Gerevich
 Hungary
Vincenzo Pinton
 Italy
Pál Kovács
 Hungary
1952 Helsinki
details
Pál Kovács
 Hungary
Aladár Gerevich
 Hungary
Tibor Berczelly
 Hungary
1956 Melbourne
details
Rudolf Kárpáti
 Hungary
Jerzy Pawłowski
 Poland
Lev Kuznetsov
 Soviet Union
1960 Rome
details
Rudolf Kárpáti
 Hungary
Zoltán Horváth
 Hungary
Wladimiro Calarese
 Italy
1964 Tokyo
details
Tibor Pézsa
 Hungary
Claude Arabo
 France
Umar Mavlikhanov
 Soviet Union
1968 Mexico City
details
Jerzy Pawłowski
 Poland
Mark Rakita
 Soviet Union
Tibor Pézsa
 Hungary
1972 Munich
details
Viktor Sidyak
 Soviet Union
Péter Maróth
 Hungary
Vladimir Nazlymov
 Soviet Union
1976 Montreal
details
Viktor Krovopuskov
 Soviet Union
Vladimir Nazlymov
 Soviet Union
Viktor Sidyak
 Soviet Union
1980 Moscow
details
Viktor Krovopuskov
 Soviet Union
Mikhail Burtsev
 Soviet Union
Imre Gedővári
 Hungary
1984 Los Angeles
details
Jean-François Lamour
 France
Marco Marin
 Italy
Peter Westbrook
 United States
1988 Seoul
details
Jean-François Lamour
 France
Janusz Olech
 Poland
Giovanni Scalzo
 Italy
1992 Barcelona
details
Bence Szabó
 Hungary
Marco Marin
 Italy
Jean-François Lamour
 France
1996 Atlanta
details
Stanislav Pozdnyakov
 Russia
Sergey Sharikov
 Russia
Damien Touya
 France
2000 Sydney
details
Mihai Claudiu Covaliu
 Romania
Mathieu Gourdain
 France
Wiradech Kothny
 Germany
2004 Athens
details
Aldo Montano
 Italy
Zsolt Nemcsik
 Hungary
Vladislav Tretiak
 Ukraine
2008 Beijing
details
Zhong Man
 China
Nicolas Lopez
 France
Mihai Claudiu Covaliu
 Romania
2012 London
details
Áron Szilágyi
 Hungary
Diego Occhiuzzi
 Italy
Nikolay Kovalev
 Russia
2016 Rio
details
Áron Szilágyi
 Hungary
Daryl Homer
 United States
Kim Jung-hwan
 South Korea



Foil, individual

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1896 Athens
details
Eugène-Henri Gravelotte
 France
Henri Callot
 France
Periklis Pierrakos-Mavromichalis
 Greece
1900 Paris
details
Émile Coste
 France
Henri Masson
 France
Marcel Boulenger
 France
1904 St. Louis
details
Ramón Fonst
 Cuba
Albertson Van Zo Post
 United States
Charles Tatham
 United States
1908 London not included in the Olympic program
1912 Stockholm
details
Nedo Nadi
 Italy
Pietro Speciale
 Italy
Richard Verderber
 Austria
1920 Antwerp
details
Nedo Nadi
 Italy
Philippe Cattiau
 France
Roger Ducret
 France
1924 Paris
details
Roger Ducret
 France
Philippe Cattiau
 France
Maurice Van Damme
 Belgium
1928 Amsterdam
details
Lucien Gaudin
 France
Erwin Casmir
 Germany
Giulio Gaudini
 Italy
1932 Los Angeles
details
Gustavo Marzi
 Italy
Joseph Levis
 United States
Giulio Gaudini
 Italy
1936 Berlin
details
Giulio Gaudini
 Italy
Edward Gardère
 France
Giorgio Bocchino
 Italy
1948 London
details
Jehan Buhan
 France
Christian d'Oriola
 France
Lajos Maszlay
 Hungary
1952 Helsinki
details
Christian d'Oriola
 France
Edoardo Mangiarotti
 Italy
Manlio Di Rosa
 Italy
1956 Melbourne
details
Christian d'Oriola
 France
Giancarlo Bergamini
 Italy
Antonio Spallino
 Italy
1960 Rome
details
Viktor Zhdanovich
 Soviet Union
Yuri Sisikin
 Soviet Union
Albert Axelrod
 United States
1964 Tokyo
details
Egon Franke
 Poland
Jean Claude Magnan
 France
Daniel Revenu
 France
1968 Mexico City
details
Ion Drîmbă
 Romania
Jenő Kamuti
 Hungary
Daniel Revenu
 France
1972 Munich
details
Witold Woyda
 Poland
Jenő Kamuti
 Hungary
Christian Noël
 France
1976 Montreal
details
Fabio dal Zotto
 Italy
Alexandr Romankov
 Soviet Union
Bernard Talvard
 France
1980 Moscow
details
Vladimir Smirnov
 Soviet Union
Pascal Jolyot
 France
Alexandr Romankov
 Soviet Union
1984 Los Angeles
details
Mauro Numa
 Italy
Matthias Behr
 West Germany
Stefano Cerioni
 Italy
1988 Seoul
details
Stefano Cerioni
 Italy
Udo Wagner
 East Germany
Alexandr Romankov
 Soviet Union
1992 Barcelona
details
Philippe Omnès
 France
Sergei Golubitsky
 Unified Team
Elvis Gregory
 Cuba
1996 Atlanta
details
Alessandro Puccini
 Italy
Lionel Plumenail
 France
Franck Boidin
 France
2000 Sydney
details
Kim Young-Ho
 South Korea
Ralf Bissdorf
 Germany
Dmitriy Shevchenko
 Russia
2004 Athens
details
Brice Guyart
 France
Salvatore Sanzo
 Italy
Andrea Cassarà
 Italy
2008 Beijing
details
Benjamin Kleibrink
 Germany
Yuki Ota
 Japan
Salvatore Sanzo
 Italy
2012 London
details
Lei Sheng
 China
Alaaeldin Abouelkassem
 Egypt
Choi Byung-Chul
 South Korea
2016 Rio
details
Daniele Garozzo
 Italy
Alexander Massialas
 United States
Timur Safin
 Russia




Épée, individual

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1900 Paris
details
Ramón Fonst
 Cuba
Louis Perrée
 France
Léon Sée
 France
1904 St. Louis
details
Ramón Fonst
 Cuba
Charles Tatham
 United States
Albertson Van Zo Post
 United States
1908 London
details
Gaston Alibert
 France
Alexandre Lippmann
 France
Eugene Olivier
 France
1912 Stockholm
details
Paul Anspach
 Belgium
Ivan Joseph Martin Osiier
 Denmark
Philippe le Hardy
 Belgium
1920 Antwerp
details
Armand Massard
 France
Alexandre Lippmann
 France
Gustave Buchard
 France
1924 Paris
details
Charles Delporte
 Belgium
Roger Ducret
 France
Nils Hellsten
 Sweden
1928 Amsterdam
details
Lucien Gaudin
 France
Georges Buchard
 France
George Calnan
 United States
1932 Los Angeles
details
Giancarlo Cornaggia-Medici
 Italy
Georges Buchard
 France
Carlo Agostoni
 Italy
1936 Berlin
details
Franco Riccardi
 Italy
Saverio Ragno
 Italy
Giancarlo Cornaggia-Medici
 Italy
1948 London
details
Luigi Cantone
 Italy
Oswald Zappelli
 Switzerland
Edoardo Mangiarotti
 Italy
1952 Helsinki
details
Edoardo Mangiarotti
 Italy
Dario Mangiarotti
 Italy
Oswald Zappelli
 Switzerland
1956 Melbourne
details
Carlo Pavesi
 Italy
Giuseppe Delfino
 Italy
Edoardo Mangiarotti
 Italy
1960 Rome
details
Giuseppe Delfino
 Italy
Allan Jay
 Great Britain
Bruno Khabarov
 Soviet Union
1964 Tokyo
details
Grigory Kriss
 Soviet Union
Henry Hoskyns
 Great Britain
Guram Kostava
 Soviet Union
1968 Mexico City
details
Győző Kulcsár
 Hungary
Grigory Kriss
 Soviet Union
Gianluigi Saccaro
 Italy
1972 Munich
details
Csaba Fenyvesi
 Hungary
Jacques Ladegaillerie
 France
Győző Kulcsár
 Hungary
1976 Montreal
details
Alexander Pusch
 West Germany
Hans-Jürgen Hehn
 West Germany
Győző Kulcsár
 Hungary
1980 Moscow
details
Johan Harmenberg
 Sweden
Ernő Kolczonay
 Hungary
Philippe Riboud
 France
1984 Los Angeles
details
Philippe Boisse
 France
Björne Väggö
 Sweden
Philippe Riboud
 France
1988 Seoul
details
Arnd Schmitt
 West Germany
Philippe Riboud
 France
Andrei Chouvalov
 Soviet Union
1992 Barcelona
details
Éric Srecki
 France
Pavel Kolobkov
 Unified Team
Jean-Michel Henry
 France
1996 Atlanta
details
Aleksandr Beketov
 Russia
Ivan Trevejo
 Cuba
Géza Imre
 Hungary
2000 Sydney
details
Pavel Kolobkov
 Russia
Hugues Obry
 France
Lee Sang-ki
 South Korea
2004 Athens
details
Marcel Fischer
 Switzerland
Wang Lei
 China
Pavel Kolobkov
 Russia
2008 Beijing
details
Matteo Tagliariol
 Italy
Fabrice Jeannet
 France
José Luis Abajo
 Spain
2012 London
details
Rubén Limardo
 Venezuela
Bartosz Piasecki
 Norway
Jung Jin-sun
 South Korea
2016 Rio
details
Park Sang-young
 South Korea
Géza Imre
 Hungary
Gauthier Grumier
 France





https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Olympic_medalists_in_fencing_(men)

{Notice how it is a mostly European countries that win in fencing.}

---------------------------



List of Olympic records in swimming


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Olympic_records_in_swimming



Event Record Name Nation Games Date
50 m freestyle 21.30  César Cielo  Brazil (BRA) 2008 Beijing 16 August 2008
100 m freestyle 47.05  Eamon Sullivan  Australia (AUS) 2008 Beijing 13 August 2008
200 m freestyle 1:42.96  Michael Phelps  United States (USA) 2008 Beijing 12 August 2008
400 m freestyle 3:40.14  Sun Yang  China (CHN) 2012 London 28 July 2012
1500 m freestyle ♦14:31.02  Sun Yang  China (CHN) 2012 London 4 August 2012
100 m backstroke ♦51.85  Ryan Murphy  United States (USA) 2016 Rio de Janeiro 13 August 2016
200 m backstroke 1:53.41  Tyler Clary  United States (USA) 2012 London 2 August 2012
100 m breaststroke ♦57.13  Adam Peaty  Great Britain (GBR) 2016 Rio de Janeiro 7 August 2016
200 m breaststroke 2:07.22  Ippei Watanabe  Japan (JPN) 2016 Rio de Janeiro 9 August 2016
100 m butterfly 50.39  Joseph Schooling  Singapore (SGP) 2016 Rio de Janeiro 12 August 2016
200 m butterfly 1:52.03  Michael Phelps  United States (USA) 2008 Beijing 13 August 2008
200 m individual medley 1:54.23  Michael Phelps  United States (USA) 2008 Beijing 15 August 2008
400 m individual medley ♦4:03.84  Michael Phelps  United States (USA) 2008 Beijing 10 August 2008
4×100 m freestyle relay ♦3:08.24  Michael Phelps (47.51)
Garrett Weber-Gale (47.02)
Cullen Jones (47.65)
Jason Lezak (46.06)
 United States (USA) 2008 Beijing 11 August 2008
4×200 m freestyle relay 6:58.56  Michael Phelps (1:43.31)
Ryan Lochte (1:44.28)
Ricky Berens (1:46.29)
Peter Vanderkaay (1:44.68)
 United States (USA) 2008 Beijing 13 August 2008
4×100 m medley relay 3:27.95  Ryan Murphy (51.85)
Cody Miller (59.03)
Michael Phelps (50.33)
Nathan Adrian (46.74)
 United States (USA) 2016 Rio de Jainero 13 August 2016




{Notice how it is mostly a white or Asian winning these events. Michael Phelps is mostly white and a little Jewish, and he was even smoking cannabis and breaking records in swimming, what an athlete.}


----------------------------------

Diving at the Summer Olympics


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diving_at_the_Summer_Olympics


 Rank     Nation     Gold     Silver     Bronze     Total

1      United States (USA)     49     44     45     138
2      China (CHN)     40     19     10     69
3      Sweden (SWE)     6     8     7     21
4      Russia (RUS)     4     8     6     18
5      Soviet Union (URS)     4     4     6     14
6      Italy (ITA)     3     5     3     11
7      Australia (AUS)     3     3     7     13
8      United Team of Germany (EUA)     3     1     0     4
9      Germany (GER)     2     8     11     21
10      East Germany (GDR)     2     2     3     7
11      Mexico (MEX)     1     7     6     14
12      Canada (CAN)     1     4     8     13
13      Great Britain (GBR)     1     3     6     10
14      Czechoslovakia (TCH)     1     1     0     2
15      Denmark (DEN)     1     0     1     2
16      Greece (GRE)     1     0     0     1


------------------



Fastest Man in the World !

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B5V356k-9a8


{It is a white guy, and he even appears to be disabled.}

-------------------------


List of world records in speed skating


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_world_records_in_speed_skating

{Notice how it is mostly people of European descent and Asians winning speed skating records.}

-----------------------------------



254.958kph Speed Ski World Record 2016, Fastest non-motorised humans on the planet.


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QR9jZjsvGN4


-----------------------------

X Games


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X_Games#Summer_X_Games

{Again, mostly people with European ancestry are winning in the X-games.}

-------------------

{Notice how many of the best skaters such as Tony Hawk, are mainly European descent. Look at all of the professional snowboarders and skiers that have European ancestry. Look at many of the really good wing suit videos and parachute stunts on the internet are done by many people with European ancestry.}


----------------


Winter X Games XXI


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Winter_X_Games_XXI

{ Haha, not one African or Arabic country up there on the record board. You know what they have to say in return to stuff like this, they come out with some movie such as Cool Runnings.}



------------

Bobsleigh at the Winter Olympics



Rank     Nation     Gold     Silver     Bronze     Total

1      Germany (GER)     13     6     6     25
2      Switzerland (SUI)     9     11     11     31
3      United States (USA)     7     8     10     25
4      East Germany (GDR)     5     5     3     13
5      Canada (CAN)     5     2     2     9
6      Italy (ITA)     4     4     4     12
7      West Germany (FRG)     1     3     2     6
8      Austria (AUT)     1     2     0     3
9      Great Britain (GBR)     1     1     2     4
10      Soviet Union (URS)     1     0     2     3
11      Belgium (BEL)     0     1     1     2
 Latvia (LAT)     0     1     1     2
 Russia (RUS)     0     1     1     2
14      South Korea (KOR)     0     1     0     1
15      France (FRA)     0     0     1     1
 Romania (ROU)     0     0     1     1



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bobsleigh_at_the_Winter_Olympics

----------

Luge at the Winter Olympics


 Medal table

Updated after 2018 Winter Olympics.

Rank     Nation     Gold     Silver     Bronze     Total

1      Germany (GER)     18     10     9     37
2      East Germany (GDR)     13     8     8     29
3      Italy (ITA)     7     4     6     17
4      Austria (AUT)     6     8     8     22
5      United Team of Germany (EUA)     2     2     1     5
6      West Germany (FRG)     1     4     5     10
7      Soviet Union (URS)     1     2     3     6
8      United States (USA)     0     3     3     6
9      Russia (RUS)     0     3     0     3
10      Latvia (LAT)     0     1     3     4
11      Canada (CAN)     0     1     1     2
Total     48     46     47     141


 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luge_at_the_Winter_Olympics

---------


Biathlon World Cup


Norway 2017-18
Russia 2016-17
Norway 2015-16
Russia 2014-15
Germany 2013-14
Russia 2012-13
France 2011-12
Norway 2010-11
Norway 2009-10
Austria 2008-09
Norway 2007-08
Russia 2006-07
Germany 2005-06
Norway  2004-05
Norway  2003-04
Belarus 2002-03
Norway  2001-02
Norway  2000-01
Norway 1999-00
Germany 1998-99
Norway - Germany 1997-98
Germany 1996-97
Russia 1995-96
Russia 1994-95

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biathlon_World_Cup

{Americans and people of Europe are some of the better marksmen, and hold many records. Even some of the best snipers in the world are of European ancestry, and the snipers with the longest shots are Canadian and American.}



-----------------

Cross-country skiing at the Winter Olympics


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cross-country_skiing_at_the_Winter_Olympics


 Rank     Nation     Gold     Silver     Bronze     Total

1      Norway (NOR)     47     42     32     121
2      Sweden (SWE)     31     25     24     80
3      Soviet Union (URS)     25     22     21     68
4      Finland (FIN)     21     25     34     80
5      Russia (RUS)     14     10     9     33
6      Italy (ITA)     9     13     13     35
7      Estonia (EST)     4     2     1     7
8      Switzerland (SUI)     4     0     4     8

---------------

Alpine skiing at the Winter Olympics



Rank     Nation     Gold     Silver     Bronze     Total

1      Austria (AUT)     37     41     43     121
2      Switzerland (SUI)     22     22     22     66
3      United States (USA)     17     20     10     47
4      France (FRA)     15     16     17     48
5      Italy (ITA)     14     9     9     32
6      Germany (GER) ^     12     7     7     26
7      Norway (NOR)     11     13     12     36
8      Sweden (SWE)     7     2     9     18
9      Croatia (CRO)     4     6     0     10
10      Canada (CAN)     4     1     6     11

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alpine_skiing_at_the_Winter_Olympics

------------

Nordic combined at the Winter Olympics


Rank     Nation     Gold     Silver     Bronze     Total

1      Norway (NOR)     13     10     8     31
2      Germany (GER)     5     5     4     14
3      Finland (FIN)     4     8     2     14
4      Austria (AUT)     3     2     10     15
5      East Germany (GDR)     3     0     4     7
6      Japan (JPN)     2     3     0     5
7      France (FRA)     2     1     1     4
8      West Germany (FRG)     2     1     0     3
9      United States (USA)     1     3     0     4
10      Switzerland (SUI)     1     2     1     4


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nordic_combined_at_the_Winter_Olympics

----------


Speed skating at the Winter Olympics



Rank     Nation     Gold     Silver     Bronze     Total

1      Netherlands (NED)     42     40     39     121
2      United States (USA)     29     22     17     68
3      Norway (NOR)     27     29     28     84
4      Soviet Union (URS)     24     17     19     60
5      Germany (GER)     13     15     10     38
6      Canada (CAN)     9     13     15     37
7      East Germany (GDR)     8     12     9     29
8      Finland (FIN)     7     8     9     24
9      Sweden (SWE)     7     4     5     16
10      South Korea (KOR)     5     8     3     16
11      Japan (JPN)     4     7     10     21
12      Russia (RUS)     3     5     5     13
13      Czech Republic (CZE)     3     2     2     7
14      West Germany (FRG)     3     0     0     3
15      Italy (ITA)     2     0     2     4

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Speed_skating_at_the_Winter_Olympics

---------

Shooting at the Summer Olympics


 Rank     Nation     Gold     Silver     Bronze     Total

1      United States (USA)     54     29     27     110
2      China (CHN)     22     15     19     56
3      Soviet Union (URS)     17     15     17     49
4      Italy (ITA)     16     15     11     42
5      Sweden (SWE)     15     24     18     57
6      Great Britain (GBR)     13     15     18     46
7      Norway (NOR)     13     8     11     32
8      Germany (GER)     10     9     5     24
9      France (FRA)     9     14     10     33
10      Russia (RUS)     7     13     11     31

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shooting_at_the_Summer_Olympics

{I've seen it with my own eyes too many times, people of European descent and of
Oriental descent are very formidable when it comes to target sports, and are some of the best when it comes to shooting and target practice. The Oriental people claimed to even have invented gunpowder. Notice how Western and Oriental nations could both overthrow African and Middle Eastern nations if they wanted to in a war, and that both western nations and Oriental Nations have the highest IQ average as well. Western nations alone could defeat all of Africa and the Middle East, without the help of anyone else.}

-----------


Why Arabs Lose Wars


 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cZk4Yu42g0I


----------

 Why Arabs Lose Wars (American Diplomacy)


http://www.unc.edu/depts/diplomat/AD_Issues/amdipl_17/articles/deatkine_arabs1.html


----------


Why Arabs Lose Wars


http://gibiru.com/?cx=partner-pub-5956360965567042%3A8627692578&cof=FORID%3A11&ie=UTF-8&q=why+arabs+lose+wars&sa=Anon+Web+Search

--------

Archery at the Summer Olympics


 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archery_at_the_Summer_Olympics


Rank     Nation     Gold     Silver     Bronze     Total

1      South Korea (KOR)     23     9     7     39
2      United States (USA)     14     11     9     34
3      Belgium (BEL)     11     6     3     20
4      France (FRA)     6     11     7     24
5      Great Britain (GBR)     2     2     5     9
6      Italy (ITA)     2     2     3     7
7      China (CHN)     1     6     2     9
8      Soviet Union (URS)     1     3     3     7
9      Finland (FIN)     1     1     2     4
 Ukraine (UKR)     1     1     2     4
11      Australia (AUS)     1     0     2     3


{Look at this, the South Koreans do the best at archery in the Olympics, they also hold a gold medal in fencing ( Épée, individual). Being a Korean is being like an archer class. Europeans also have very good archers}.

---------------------


List of World Table Tennis Championships medalists


 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_World_Table_Tennis_Championships_medalists

  
{It is mostly Orientals and Europeans winning the World Table Tennis Championships}.

-------------


Short track speed skating at the Winter Olympics


 Rank     Nation     Gold     Silver     Bronze     Total

1      South Korea (KOR)     24     13     11     48
2      China (CHN)     10     15     8     33
3      Canada (CAN)     9     12     12     33
4      United States (USA)     4     7     9     20
5      Russia (RUS)     3     1     1     5
6      Italy (ITA)     2     4     5     11
7      Netherlands (NED)     1     2     2     5
8      Japan (JPN)     1     0     2     3
9      Australia (AUS)     1     0     1     2
10      Hungary (HUN)     1     0     0     1
11      Bulgaria (BUL)     0     2     1     3


 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Short_track_speed_skating_at_the_Winter_Olympics

--------------------



Conte says coverup protected big stars at Seoul Games


Explosive allegations

Indeed, sports governing bodies are not immune to coverups, corruption and other scandals.
Conte said he believes a coverup “all the way to the top” involved track and Olympic officials at the 1988 Seoul Games. He said sprinter Florence Griffith Joyner, heptathlete/long jumper Jackie Joyner-Kersee and 400-meter hurdler Andre Phillips — three marquee gold medalists — all tested positive for PEDs in the South Korean capital, and “they were all covered up.”
“And if you noticed what happened thereafter was that here at (28) years old Flo-Jo was at the height of her economic earning potential and all of a sudden she retires,” said Conte, looking back on the immediate aftermath of Griffith Joyner’s three-gold, one-silver medal haul in Seoul. “And Jackie Joyner also retires, (though) she did come back in 1992, four years later. . .”


 https://www.japantimes.co.jp/sports/2015/08/11/more-sports/conte-says-coverup-protected-big-stars-seoul-games/#.WtGkYpdlDIU

---------------



Japanese skater Kei Saito banned from PyeongChang Olympics for alleged doping


 Feb 2018

 https://www.nbcnews.com/storyline/winter-olympics-2018/first-athlete-banned-pyeongchang-olympics-alleged-doping-n847446

--------------

Systematic doping of Chinese athletes in Olympic Games revealed by former doctor


A former doctor has revealed the massive extent of doping of Chinese Olympic athletes during the 1980s and 1990s. The whistleblower has claimed more than 10,000 athletes were doped in the state-backed program. 

http://www.dw.com/en/systematic-doping-of-chinese-athletes-in-olympic-games-revealed-by-former-doctor/a-41065227

{It's over 9,000!!!}

-----------

{One thing I will also give to Orientals, is that even some of them are small, some have held the record in weightlifting for smaller framed people in light weight classes. European people still hold most of the weightlifting records on average, mainly in maximun weight records in a category for weightlifting. There are some people in the Middle East that also do fairly well for lifting in their weight class, and have different records as well.}

------------

Russia, Iran to lose Olympic weightlifting spots for doping


 April 13, 2018

BUDAPEST, Hungary (AP) — Russia and Iran are among several nations who will lose places in the next Olympic weightlifting competition because of years of doping.


https://www.usatoday.com/story/sports/olympics/2018/04/13/russia-iran-to-lose-olympic-weightlifting-spots-for-doping/33795305/


-------


31 Turkish athletes suspended for doping

Track and field athletes banned for 2 years


 http://www.cbc.ca/sports/olympics/trackandfield/31-turkish-athletes-suspended-for-doping-1.1379647

{There are many Turkish weightlifters that are on steroids.}

---------------


List of Olympic records in weightlifting



Men's records

 

♦ denotes a performance that is also a current world record. Statistics are correct as of 9 September 2017.
Event Record Athlete Nation Games Date
56 kg
Snatch 138 kg Halil Mutlu  Turkey 2000 Sydney 16 September 2000
Clean & Jerk 170 kg Long Qingquan  China 2016 Rio de Janeiro 7 August 2016
Total ♦307 kg Long Qingquan  China 2016 Rio de Janeiro 7 August 2016
62 kg
Snatch 153 kg Kim Un-guk  North Korea 2012 London 30 July 2012
Clean & Jerk 177 kg Óscar Figueroa  Colombia 2012 London 30 July 2012
Total 327 kg Kim Un-guk  North Korea 2012 London 30 July 2012
69 kg
Snatch 165 kg Georgi Markov  Bulgaria 2000 Sydney 20 September 2000
Clean & Jerk 196 kg Galabin Boevski  Bulgaria 2000 Sydney 20 September 2000
Total 357 kg Galabin Boevski  Bulgaria 2000 Sydney 20 September 2000
77 kg
Snatch ♦177 kg Lü Xiaojun  China 2016 Rio de Janeiro 10 August 2016
Clean & Jerk ♦214 kg Nijat Rahimov  Kazakhstan 2016 Rio de Janeiro 10 August 2016
Total 379 kg Lü Xiaojun  China 2012 London 1 August 2012
85 kg
Snatch 180 kg Giorgi Asanidze  Georgia 2000 Sydney 23 September 2000
Clean & Jerk 217 kg Tian Tao  China 2016 Rio de Janeiro 12 August 2016
Total ♦396 kg Kianoush Rostami   Iran 2016 Rio de Janeiro 12 August 2016
94 kg
Snatch 187 kg Kourosh Bagheri  Iran 2000 Sydney 24 September 2000
Clean & Jerk 224 kg Szymon Kołecki  Poland 2008 Beijing 17 August 2008
Total 407 kg Milen Dobrev  Bulgaria 2004 Athens 23 August 2004
105 kg
Snatch ♦200 kg Andrei Aramnau  Belarus 2008 Beijing 18 August 2008
Clean & Jerk 237 kg Ruslan Nurudinov  Uzbekistan 2016 Rio de Janeiro 15 August 2016
Total 436 kg Andrei Aramnau  Belarus 2008 Beijing 18 August 2008
+105 kg
Snatch 216 kg Behdad Salimi  Iran 2016 Rio de Janeiro 16 August 2016
Clean & Jerk ♦263 kg Hossein Rezazadeh  Iran 2004 Athens 25 August 2004
Total ♦473 kg Lasha Talakhadze  Georgia 2016 Rio de Janeiro 16 August 2016

 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Olympic_records_in_weightlifting


{The thing with Olympic records in weightlifting, is that they are often not the world record though. There are several records that beat many of the records in Olympic weightlifting, many of course will question if some of these people are on steroids as well. The Olympics get very political as well, and many people do not qualify for the Oplympics if they get too political as well,  just as in many other types of professional venues and competitions such as the NFL and NBA. It also gets expensive for an individual to travel halfway across the world, to attempt to compete in an event.}



----------

Weightlifting at the Summer Olympics


 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weightlifting_at_the_Summer_Olympics



Medal table

As of the 2016 Summer Olympics

Rank     Nation     Gold     Silver     Bronze     Total

1      Soviet Union (URS)     39     21     2     62
2      China (CHN)     31     15     8     54
3      United States (USA)     16     16     12     44
4      Bulgaria (BUL)     12     17     8     37
5      France (FRA)     9     3     3     15
6      Iran (IRI)     8     6     5     19
7      Turkey (TUR)     8     1     2     11
8      Germany (GER)     6     7     7     20
9      Poland (POL)     6     5     23     34
10      Greece (GRE)     6     5     4     15
11      North Korea (PRK)     5     7     5     17
12      Italy (ITA)     5     4     5     14
13      Unified Team (EUN)     5     4     0     9
14      Thailand (THA)     5     2     5     12
15      Egypt (EGY)     5     2     4     11
16      Russia (RUS)     3     8     7     18
17      South Korea (KOR)     3     4     5     12
18      Austria (AUT)     3     4     2     9
19      Czechoslovakia (TCH)     3     2     3     8
20      Ukraine (UKR)     3     1     1     5
21      Hungary (HUN)     2     9     9     20
22      Romania (ROU)     2     7     4     13
23      Japan (JPN)     2     3     9     14
24      West Germany (FRG)     2     2     3     7
25      Colombia (COL)     2     2     2     6
26      Cuba (CUB)     2     1     2     5
27      Georgia (GEO)     2     0     2     4
28      East Germany (GDR)     1     4     6     11
29      Belarus (BLR)     1     4     3     8
 Kazakhstan (KAZ)     1     4     3     8
31      Estonia (EST)     1     3     3     7
 Great Britain (GBR)     1     3     3     7




---------

China: 3 Olympic Weightlifters Fail Drugs Test From 2008


http://time.com/4465661/china-olympics-weightlifting-doping/

-------

Doping at the Olympic Games


This article is about the history of competitors at the Olympic Games using banned athletic performance-enhancing drugs


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doping_at_the_Olympic_Games

---------



WADA report implicates IAAF role in allowing Russian doping


http://www.espn.com/olympics/trackandfield/story/_/id/14569049/world-anti-doping-agency-report-implicates-iaaf-role-allowing-russian-doping



----------

Snowboarding at the Winter Olympics

 Rank     Nation     Gold     Silver     Bronze     Total

1      United States (USA)     14     7     10     31
2      Switzerland (SUI)     8     2     3     13
3      France (FRA)     4     4     4     12
4      Canada (CAN)     4     4     3     11
5      Russia (RUS)     2     2     1     5
6      Austria (AUT)     2     1     4     7
7      Czech Republic (CZE)     2     0     1     3
8      Germany (GER)     1     4     2     7
9      Australia (AUS)     1     2     1     4
10      Italy (ITA)     1     1     1     3
11      Netherlands (NED)     1     0     0     1

 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Snowboarding_at_the_Winter_Olympics

----------

Ice hockey at the Olympic Games




 Rank     Nation     Gold     Silver     Bronze     Total

1      Canada (CAN)     9     4     3     16
2      Soviet Union (URS)     7     1     1     9
3      United States (USA)     2     8     1     11
4      Sweden (SWE)     2     3     4     9
5      Czech Republic (CZE)     1     0     1     2
 Great Britain (GBR)     1     0     1     2
7      Olympic Athletes from Russia (OAR)     1     0     0     1
 Unified Team (EUN)     1     0     0     1
9      Czechoslovakia (TCH)     0     4     4     8
10      Finland (FIN)     0     2     4     6
11      Germany (GER)     0     1     1     2
 Russia (RUS)     0     1     1     2
13      Switzerland (SUI)     0     0     2     2
14      West Germany (FRG)     0     0     1     1


 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ice_hockey_at_the_Olympic_Games


--------


Ski jumping at the Winter Olympics


 Rank     Nation     Gold     Silver     Bronze     Total

1      Norway (NOR)     11     10     14     35
2      Finland (FIN)     10     8     4     22
3      Austria (AUT)     6     9     10     25
4      Germany (GER)     6     6     1     13
5      Poland (POL)     4     3     2     9
6      Switzerland (SUI)     4     1     0     5
7      Japan (JPN)     3     5     4     12
8      East Germany (GDR)     2     3     2     7
9      Czechoslovakia (TCH)     1     2     4     7
10      United Team of Germany (EUA)     1     0     1     2

 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ski_jumping_at_the_Winter_Olympics


-------

Winter Olympic Games


 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Winter_Olympic_Games


Ten most successful nations
Main article: All-time Olympic Games medal table

The table below uses official data provided by the IOC.
  
No.     Nation     Games     Gold     Silver     Bronze     Total

1      Norway (NOR)     23     132     125     111     368
2      United States (USA)     23     105     110     90     305
3      Germany (GER)     12     92     86     60     238
4      Austria (AUT)     23     64     81     87     232
5      Canada (CAN)     23     73     64     62     199
6      Soviet Union (URS)     9     78     57     59     194
7      Finland (FIN)     23     43     63     61     167
8      Sweden (SWE)     23     57     46     55     158
9      Switzerland (SUI)     23     55     46     52     153
10      Netherlands (NED)     21     45     44     41     130


{You will notice that Norwegian people on average, are some of the biggest, tallest and most athletic people in the world.}

---------------------

Summer Olympic Games


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Summer_Olympic_Games

Ten most successful nations

#1: America
#2: Soviet Union
#3: Great Britain
#4: China
#5: France
#6: Italy
#7: Germany
#8: Hungary
#9: East Germany
#10: Russia

Https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Summer_Olympic_Games



--------------------

Cycling at the Summer Olympics




Rank     Nation     Gold     Silver     Bronze     Total

1      France (FRA)     41     27     23     91
2      Italy (ITA)     33     16     10     59
3      Great Britain (GBR)     32     30     25     87
4      Netherlands (NED)     18     19     12     49
5      United States (USA)     16     21     18     55
6      Australia (AUS)     14     19     18     51
7      Germany (GER)     14     14     16     44
8      Soviet Union (URS)     11     4     9     24
9      Denmark (DEN)     7     9     10     26
10    Belgium (BEL)     7     7     11     25


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cycling_at_the_Summer_Olympics

-------------

Triathlon at the Summer Olympics


Medal table

Thirteen nations have split the thirty medals awarded in the triathlon events.

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1  Great Britain (GBR) 2 1 2 5
 Switzerland (SUI) 2 1 2 5
3  Australia (AUS) 1 2 2 5
4  New Zealand (NZL) 1 1 1 3
5  Canada (CAN) 1 1 0 2
 Germany (GER) 1 1 0 2
7  United States (USA) 1 0 1 2
8  Austria (AUT) 1 0 0 1
9  Portugal (POR) 0 1 0 1
 Spain (ESP) 0 1 0 1
 Sweden (SWE) 0 1 0 1
12  Czech Republic (CZE) 0 0 1 1
 South Africa (RSA) 0 0 1 1
Total 10 10 10 30

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triathlon_at_the_Summer_Olympics


------


History Maker: Fastest Bicycle Rider in the World


Outside of the Worchester (Mass) Public Library stands a bronze two-sided monument honoring an African-American man who blazed the trail in cycling.  Born in Indiana in 1878, Marshall “Major” Taylor was coined the fastest bicycle rider in the world, setting seven world records according to the Major Taylor Association. Taylor won the World 1-mile Cycling Championship in Montreal in 1899 and in 1900 he returned to the U.S. and became the American sprint champion.

http://www.blackenterprise.com/history-maker-fastest-bicycle-rider-world/

{Sure he might have set records in the 1800s, but many people have beaten these old records, we can see a lot of newer technology in bicycles as well.}


--------------------


Strongman World Records


http://theworldsstrongestman.com/strongman-world-records/

(It is mostly Europeans that win the strongman competitions.)

-----------------


Lumberjack World Championship


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lumberjack_World_Championship

----------------


Official Strongman


https://www.officialstrongman.com/


-----------------


The Armwrestling Archives

The Top 30 Pullers of the 1990s (Men)

{Top 3 armwrestlers in the 1990s were white, with the majority being white, and a few blacks up there as well, this is the same with the 1980s and 1970s armwrestling archives.}


The Armwrestling Archives
The Top 25 Pullers of the 1980s (Men)


The Armwrestling Archives
The Top 25 Pullers of the 1970s (Men)

https://www.thearmwrestlingarchives.com/top-25-pullers-of-the-1970s-men.html

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Overhead Press World Records


https://recordsetter.com/overhead-press-world-records


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Men's shot put world record progression

World record progression

Mark     Athlete     Date     Location

15.54 m      Ralph Rose (USA)     21 August 1909     San Francisco, U.S.
15.79 m      Emil Hirschfeld (GER)     6 May 1928     Breslau, Germany
15.87 m      John Kuck (USA)     29 June 1928     Amsterdam, Netherlands
16.04 m      Emil Hirschfeld (GER)     26 August 1928     Bochum, Germany
16.04 m      František Douda (TCH)     4 October 1931     Brno, Czechoslovakia
16.05 m      Zygmunt Heljasz (POL)     29 June 1932     Poznań, Poland
16.16 m      Leo Sexton (USA)     27 August 1932     Freeport, U.S.
16.20 m      František Douda (TCH)     24 September 1932     Prague, Czechoslovakia
16.48 m      John Lyman (USA)     21 April 1934     Palo Alto, U.S.
16.80 m      Jack Torrance (USA)     27 April 1934     Des Moines, U.S.
16.89 m      Jack Torrance (USA)     30 June 1934     Milwaukee, U.S.
17.40 m      Jack Torrance (USA)     5 August 1934     Oslo, Norway
17.68 m      Charlie Fonville (USA)     17 April 1948     Lawrence, U.S.
17.79 m      Jim Fuchs (USA)     28 July 1949     Oslo, Norway
17.82 m      Jim Fuchs (USA)     29 April 1950     Los Angeles, U.S.
17.90 m      Jim Fuchs (USA)     20 August 1950     Visby, Sweden
17.95 m      Jim Fuchs (USA)     22 August 1950     Eskilstuna, Sweden
18.00 m      Parry O'Brien (USA)     9 May 1953     Fresno, U.S.
18.04 m      Parry O'Brien (USA)     5 June 1953     Compton, U.S.
18.42 m      Parry O'Brien (USA)     8 May 1954     Los Angeles, U.S.
18.43 m      Parry O'Brien (USA)     21 May 1954     Los Angeles, U.S.
18.54 m      Parry O'Brien (USA)     11 June 1954     Los Angeles, U.S.
18.62 m      Parry O'Brien (USA)     5 May 1956     Salt Lake City, U.S.
18.69 m      Parry O'Brien (USA)     15 June 1956     Los Angeles, U.S.
19.06 m      Parry O'Brien (USA)     3 September 1956     Eugene, U.S.
19.25 m      Parry O'Brien (USA)     1 November 1956     Los Angeles, U.S.
19.25 m      Dallas Long (USA)     28 March 1959     Santa Barbara, U.S.
19.30 m      Parry O'Brien (USA)     1 August 1959     Albuquerque, U.S.
19.38 m      Dallas Long (USA)     5 March 1960     Los Angeles, U.S.
19.45 m      Bill Nieder (USA)     19 March 1960     Palo Alto, U.S.
19.67 m      Dallas Long (USA)     26 March 1960     Los Angeles, U.S.
19.99 m      Bill Nieder (USA)     2 April 1960     Austin, U.S.
20.06 m      Bill Nieder (USA)     12 August 1960     Walnut, U.S.
20.08 m      Dallas Long (USA)     18 May 1962     Los Angeles, U.S.
20.10 m      Dallas Long (USA)     4 April 1964     Los Angeles, U.S.
20.20 m      Dallas Long (USA)     29 May 1964     Los Angeles, U.S.
20.68 m      Dallas Long (USA)     25 July 1964     Los Angeles, U.S.
21.52 m      Randy Matson (USA)     8 May 1965     College Station, U.S.
21.78 m      Randy Matson (USA)     23 April 1967     College Station
21.82 m      Al Feuerbach (USA)     5 May 1973     San Jose, U.S.
21.85 m      Terry Albritton (USA)     21 February 1976     Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.
22.00 m      Aleksandr Baryshnikov (URS)     10 June 1976     Paris, France
22.15 m      Udo Beyer (GDR)     6 July 1978     Gothenburg, Sweden
22.22 m      Udo Beyer (GDR)     25 June 1983     Los Angeles, U.S.
22.62 m      Ulf Timmermann (GDR)     22 September 1985     Berlin, Germany
22.64 m      Udo Beyer (GDR)     20 August 1986     Berlin, Germany
22.72 m      Alessandro Andrei (ITA)     12 August 1987     Viareggio, Italy
22.84 m      Alessandro Andrei (ITA)     12 August 1987     Viareggio, Italy
22.91 m      Alessandro Andrei (ITA)     12 August 1987     Viareggio, Italy
23.06 m      Ulf Timmermann (GDR)     22 May 1988     Chania, Greece
23.12 m      Randy Barnes (USA)     20 May 1990     Los Angeles, U.S.


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Men%27s_shot_put_world_record_progression

{You have to be a real highlander to win in an event such as this.}


----------------


Hammer throw


 Rank     Mark     Athlete     Location     Date     Ref

1     86.74 m (284 ft 6​3⁄4 in)      Yuriy Sedykh (SUN)     Stuttgart     30 August 1986   
2     86.04 m (282 ft 3​1⁄4 in)      Sergey Litvinov (SUN)     Dresden     3 July 1986   
3     84.90 m (278 ft 6​1⁄2 in)      Vadim Devyatovskiy (BLR)     Minsk     21 July 2005   
4     84.86 m (278 ft 4​3⁄4 in)      Koji Murofushi (JPN)     Prague     29 June 2003   
5     84.62 m (277 ft 7​1⁄4 in)      Igor Astapkovich (BLR)     Seville     6 June 1992

 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hammer_throw

-------------


Longest Backhand Flight Distance (Men’s)

David Wiggins Jr.

https://www.bestdiscgolfdiscs.com/current-world-record-holding-disc-golf-discs/


------------------


Men's discus throw world record progression

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Men%27s_discus_throw_world_record_progression

{Europeans have been throwing the discus since around the times of Ancient Greece.}

------------------


{Now let us pause for a minute and see the great accomplishments that our ancestors have set. We can see that Europeans are some of the top athletes in the world.

Now we can see with trying to genetically modify humans and newly introduced chemicals, that many think the humans of the future will be able to beat many of these current records with enhanced technology. We can see the amount of people trying to use steroids and drug enhancing chemicals in professional sports, where many question what kinds of steroids will be available in the next thousands of years.

Many people question what the future humans will be able to accomplish with genetics, training, technology and medicine. Many people say that are trying to genetically modify what they consider the perfect human. They want humans that could even bring up the internet in their brain, where you could use a cellphone even installed into your body.}




------------------


Men's javelin throw world record progression


 Record progression

Mark     Athlete     Date     Location

62.32      Eric Lemming (SWE)     29 September 1912     Stockholm, Sweden
66.10      Jonni Myyrä (FIN)     25 August 1919     Stockholm, Sweden
66.62      Gunnar Lindström (SWE)     12 October 1924     Eksjö, Sweden
69.88      Eino Penttilä (FIN)     8 October 1927     Viipuri, Finland
71.01      Erik Lundqvist (SWE)     15 August 1928     Stockholm, Sweden
71.57      Matti Järvinen (FIN)     8 August 1930     Viipuri, Finland
71.70      Matti Järvinen (FIN)     17 August 1930     Tampere, Finland
71.88      Matti Järvinen (FIN)     31 August 1930     Vaasa, Finland
72.93      Matti Järvinen (FIN)     14 September 1930     Viipuri, Finland
74.02      Matti Järvinen (FIN)     27 June 1932     Turku, Finland
74.28      Matti Järvinen (FIN)     25 May 1933     Mikkeli, Finland
74.61      Matti Järvinen (FIN)     7 June 1933     Vaasa, Finland
76.10      Matti Järvinen (FIN)     15 June 1933     Helsinki, Finland
76.66      Matti Järvinen (FIN)     7 September 1934[1]     Turin, Italy
77.23      Matti Järvinen (FIN)     18 June 1936     Helsinki, Finland
77.87      Yrjö Nikkanen (FIN)     25 August 1938     Karhula, Finland
78.70      Yrjö Nikkanen (FIN)     16 October 1938     Kotka, Finland
80.41      Bud Held (USA)     8 August 1953     Pasadena, CA, United States
81.75      Bud Held (USA)     21 May 1955     Modesto, CA, United States
83.56      Soini Nikkinen (FIN)     24 June 1956     Kuhmoinen, Finland
83.66      Janusz Sidło (POL)     30 June 1956     Milan, Italy
85.71      Egil Danielsen (NOR)     26 November 1956     Melbourne
86.04      Albert Cantello (USA)     5 June 1959     Compton, CA, United States
86.74      Carlo Lievore (ITA)     1 June 1961     Milan, Italy
87.12      Terje Pedersen (NOR)     1 July 1964     Oslo, Norway
91.72      Terje Pedersen (NOR)     2 September 1964     Oslo, Norway
91.98      Jānis Lūsis (URS)     23 June 1968     Saarijärvi, Finland
92.70      Jorma Kinnunen (FIN)     18 June 1969     Tampere, Finland
93.80      Jānis Lūsis (URS)     6 July 1972     Stockholm, Sweden
94.08      Klaus Wolfermann (FRG)     5 May 1973     Leverkusen, West Germany
94.58      Miklós Németh (HUN)     25 July 1976     Montreal, Canada
96.72      Ferenc Paragi (HUN)     23 April 1980     Tata, Hungary
99.72      Tom Petranoff (USA)     15 May 1983     Los Angeles, United States
104.80      Uwe Hohn (GDR)     20 July 1984     East Berlin, East Germany


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Men%27s_javelin_throw_world_record_progression

{It is mostly all people of European descent winning in this event.}


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Major league lacrosse (Record Book)

https://www.majorleaguelacrosse.com/articles/record-book

-----------------------


Category: Rugby union records and statistics


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Rugby_union_records_and_statistics

(Again, European countries are running circles around African and Arabic countries in Rugby and Soccer.)

-----------------


 FIFA World Cup 

(Championship Map)


Results




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List of sumo tournament top division champions


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sumo_tournament_top_division_champions



{The Japanese are good at Sumo wrestling, Europeans will win the championships as well. The Japanese are also very good at baseball, skiing, including different winter Olympic events and gaming.}



----


2017 US SUMO OPEN - 17th Annual | USA SUMO


Men's Openweight:

1st: Takeshi Amitani
5’7″
245 lbs
Japan
2nd: Konstantin Abdula-Zade
6’0″
241 lbs
Russia
3rd: Yevhenii Orlov
6’1″
280 lbs
Ukraine

 Men's Heavyweight:

1st: Byambajav Ulambayar
6’1″
336 lbs
Mongolia
2nd: Yevhenii Orlov
6’1″
280 lbs
Ukraine
3rd: Ramy Elgazar
6’3″
459 lbs
Egypt




https://www.usasumo.com/us-sumo-open/2017-us-sumo-open/

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World Judo Championships


All-time medal count

 Rank     Nation     Gold     Silver     Bronze     Total

1      Japan     145     87     105     337
2      France     55     34     77     166
3      South Korea     27     10     60     97
4      China     21     13     22     56
5      Cuba     20     22     41     83
6      Great Britain     16     17     31     64
7      Netherlands     15     21     41     77
8      Soviet Union     11     13     33     57
9      Russia     8     17     39     64
10      Belgium     8     14     21     43
11     Brazil Brazil     7     18     28     53
12      Germany     7     13     30     50
13      Poland     6     4     23     33
14      Georgia     5     10     18     33
15      Italy     5     7     19     31
16      North Korea     5     5     8     18
17      United States     4     8     17     29
18      Mongolia     4     4     13     21
19      Austria     4     2     8     14
20      East Germany     3     3     14     20
21      Uzbekistan     3     2     7     12
22      Greece     3     2     2     7

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Judo_Championships

{Japanese are also very good at Judo.}

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{Why is it that the Japanese are some of the smartest people, and they have recently banned Muslims from entering and living in Japan. The Japanese people do not want Sharia Law from trying to ruin and genocide off the Japanese people and culture. For more information on this topic, view our article  IslamicShariaGenocide.Blogspot.com }


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World Jiu-Jitsu Championship

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Jiu-Jitsu_Championship#10_Time_World_Championships

{Brazil and South America have some of the best Jiu-Jitsu fighters, boxers and MMA fighters,  and so do people of European ancestry. We can see that South American teams are also some of the best teams in FIFA and soccer, as well as European teams.}

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Ken Shamrock on Royce Gracie Fights!

 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KTmxttNrw_c

---------


DAN SEVERN ON KEN SHAMROCK & STEROIDS

 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R9Iz-eze-xU

----------

Ken Shamrock on Dan Severn

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HUPHPz4A6ZM


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Arnold Schwarzenegger Tells The Truth About His Steroids Use Back In The 70's


 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eiHu6Y6UOdI

-------


{So what if one guy on steroids can jump 1 inch higher or farther than another, I am sure you can eventually find another person to beat that record. Just think if we just ended sports, what good is all that running and jumping going to do in a society that requires intelligence for inventing, and jobs that require higher level of intelligence. You know if the Muslims take over and create Sharia Law, they would try to ban many of these sports that we are talking about.


The future of the world is going to be about how smart people are, and if we
can colonize space. We would want to try and reach or get close to our bodies full potential, it is good to stay active and healthy, and to push the limits and to challenge each other to do better. It is good that we can see how we have progressed in running, jumping, strength and other activities through the years. It is about trying to master both your physical and mental health and keep them at their best.}



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Top 10 Guinness World Records in Surfing


http://obxsurfinfo.com/2016/05/top-10-guinness-world-records-surfing/

{I will admit that some of the surfing competitions are rigged, it is mostly who you know, and
gets very political with sponsors as well. Europeans and Asian Polynesians are very good at ocean sports and navigating the oceans.}

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List of world records in rowing


Men

 M1x
Single sculls: New Zealand 2017

 M2-
Coxless pairs: New Zealand 2012

M2+
Coxed pairs: New Zealand  2014

 M2x
Double sculls:  Croatia 2014

 M4-
Coxless four: Great Britain 2012

M4+
Coxed four : Germany 1991

M4x Quad sculls: Ukraine 2014

M8 + eight: Germany 2017

Leightweight single sculls: Italy 2014

Leightweight coxless pairs: Switzerland 2014

Leightweight double sculls: South Africa 2014

Lightweight coxless four: Denmark 2014

Lightweight quad sculls:  Greece   2014

Lightweight eight:  Germany    1992

 

 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_world_records_in_rowing


{Some of the best navigators and people for rowing are from western nations, as we 
can see with the world records in rowing. This is how many Europeans were able to get to America many thousands of years ago, by rowing and sailing by boat.}

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List of world records in indoor rowing

 

 Heavyweight men


Event     Name     Nationality     Result     Season     Split
100 metres     Ross Love      United States     12.8     2017     1:04.0
500 metres     Leo Young      Australia     1:10.5     1991     1:10.5
1000 metres     Sam Loch      Australia     2:39.5     2017     1:19.7
2000 metres     Josh Dunkley-Smith      Australia     5:35.8     2018     1:23.9
5000 metres     Mohamed Sbihi      Great Britain     14:54.5     2016     1:29.4
6000 metres     Martin Sinkovic      Croatia     18:03.1     2016     1:30.2
10000 metres     Eric Murray      New Zealand     31:05.2     2015     1:33.2
Half marathon     Eric Murray      New Zealand     1:07:58.1     2014     1:36.6
Full marathon     Ben de Wit      Canada     2:21:08.7     2016     1:40.3
1 minute     Loren Howard      United States     429     2018     1:09.9
30 minutes     Kjetil Borch      Norway     9434     2016     1:35.4
60 minutes     Hamish Bond      New Zealand     18443     2014     1:37.6


Lightweight men


Event     Name     Nationality     Result     Season     Split
100 metres     Sebastian Gulka      Canada     14.6     2017     1:13.5
500 metres     Gregg Stephens      United States     1:20.1     2005     1:20.1
1000 metres     Jason Osborne      Germany     2:54.2     2014     1:27.1
2000 metres     Henrik Stephansen      Denmark     5:56.7     2013     1:29.1
5000 metres     Tim Male      Great Britain     16:05.6     2000     1:36.5
6000 metres     Lucas Schäfer      Germany     19:21.8     2017     1:36,8
10000 metres     Augusto Farfan      Peru     32:15.7     2005     1:36.7
Half marathon     Jesper Jensen      Denmark     1:13:12.9     2017     1:44.1
Full marathon     Jesper Jensen      Denmark     2:29:31.7     2012     1:46.3
1 minute     Matthew Segal      Canada     379     2016     1:19.1
Jasper Liu      United States     379     2017
30 minutes     Donald Evans      Great Britain     8893     2016     1:41.2
60 minutes     William Solberg      United States     17402     2017     1:43.4

 

Https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_world_records_in_indoor_rowing


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Top 5 Record Breaking Dives

https://www.commercialdivingacademy.com/top-5-record-breaking-dives.cms

{So far it is a half white and half Middle Easterner, followed by mostly westerners.}

--------------

Spanish man climbs Mount Everest in fastest known time, completely on his own


Kilian Jornet used neither bottled oxygen or fixed ropes

https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/asia/mount-everest-fasted-time-climb-kilian-jornet-a7752006.html


-------------


List of Mount Everest records



Fastest ascents

Record name Record Owner Nation Date
Fastest ascent from Everest South Base Camp
with supplemental oxygen
8 hours and 10 minutes Pemba Dorje    Nepal May 21, 2004
Fastest ascent from Everest South Base Camp
without supplemental oxygena
20 hours and 24 minutes Aman Kumar Sinha  India October 17, 2008
Fastest ascent without supplemental oxygen
and fastest ascent from Everest North Base Camp
16 hours and 45 minutes Hans Kammerlander  Italy May 24, 1996
Longest stay on the summit 21 hours Babu Chiri Sherpa    Nepal May 6, 1999

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Mount_Everest_records#Fastest_ascents



{Many people from Tibet, India and Pakistan live in very mountainous areas, and many of
these races of people hold records in many different climbing ascents. There are thousands of
different mountains and cliffs to set records in the world, and climbing is all about skill. I believe that people who live and adapt to high altitudes most of their lives, are going to have a huge advantage to climbing giant mountains, than someone who has adapted to living at sea level all of their lives.}

{Theory: If blacks are built more for speed and jumping, are Asians and Europeans built more for being able to climb mountains such as Everest. We see that Orientals do very well
at gymnastics, archery, target sports, fencing and even video games.}

-----------------


World Sauna Championships 


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Sauna_Championships

{Notice how it is just a bunch of Nordic countries winning constantly.}

----------


Sauna contest leaves Russian dead and champion Finn in hospital
Annual competition in Finland ended after challenger Vladimir Ladyzhenskiy dies after enduring 110C heat

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2010/aug/08/sauna-championship-russian-dead


--------

{Games such as volleyball can be more of a mixed race sport, and you see many different types of people win all the time. Notice how the 2017 World Cup Championship for men's Volleyball had mostly white people on it, while the other teams had less white people.}


Men's World Cup Championships (Volleyball)


With a record five European Champions League titles under their belt (including the last three editions) Zenit Kazan are the powerhouse of European club volleyball.

1     Zenit Kazan    {Mostly an all white team, 1 black guy}
2     Lube Civitanova   (Mostly an all white team}
3     Sada Cruzeiro Vôlei   {Around a half black team}
4     SKRA Belchatow
5     Shanghai Volleyball Club {All Asian team}



http://clubworldchampionships.2017.men.fivb.com/en

---------------

Most of the best race car drivers and motocross athletes are of European descent.

Sports such as BMX and downhill mountain biking continues to be dominated by people of European ancestry.

Most of the best people who are best at professional bowling are people of European ancestry.}

------------

List of World Chess Championships

 

 List of World Chess Championships

 

Year Host country Host city World champion Runner(s)-up Won (+) Lost (−) Draw (=) Format
Unofficial World Chess Championships (1834–1886)
1834  United Kingdom London France Louis de La Bourdonnais United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Alexander McDonnell 45 28 13
1843  United Kingdom London France Pierre Saint-Amant United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Howard Staunton 3 2 1
1843  France Paris United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Howard Staunton France Pierre Saint-Amant 11 6 4
1846  United Kingdom London United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Howard Staunton United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Bernhard Horwitz 14 7 3
1858  France Paris United States Paul Morphy Kingdom of Prussia Adolf Anderssen 7 2 2
1866  United Kingdom London Austrian Empire Wilhelm Steinitz Kingdom of Prussia Adolf Anderssen 8 6 0
Official World Chess Championships (1886–1946)
1886  United States New York City
Saint Louis
New Orleans
Austria-Hungary Wilhelm Steinitz United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Johannes Zukertort 10 5 5 first-to-10 wins
1889  Cuba Havana United States Wilhelm Steinitz Russian Empire Mikhail Chigorin 10 6 1 best-of-20 + tiebreak
1891  United States New York City United States Wilhelm Steinitz Austria-Hungary Isidor Gunsberg 6 4 9
1892  Cuba Havana United States Wilhelm Steinitz Russian Empire Mikhail Chigorin 8+2 8 4+1
1894  United States and
 Canada
New York City
Philadelphia
Montreal
German Empire Emanuel Lasker United States Wilhelm Steinitz 10 5 4 first-to-10 wins
1897  Russian Empire Moscow German Empire Emanuel Lasker United States Wilhelm Steinitz 10 2 5
1907  United States New York City
Philadelphia
Washington, D.C.
Baltimore
Chicago
Memphis
German Empire Emanuel Lasker United States Frank Marshall 8 0 7 first-to-8 wins
1908  German Empire Düsseldorf
Munich
German Empire Emanuel Lasker German Empire Siegbert Tarrasch 8 3 5
1910  Austria-Hungary and
 German Empire
Vienna
Berlin
German Empire Emanuel Lasker Austria-Hungary Carl Schlechter 1 1 8 best of 10; disputed whether challenger had to win by 1 or 2 points;
1910  German Empire Berlin German Empire Emanuel Lasker France Dawid Janowski 8 0 3 first-to-8 wins
1921  Cuba Havana Cuba José Raúl Capablanca Weimar Republic Emanuel Lasker 4 0 10 best-of-24; Emanuel Lasker resigned after 14 games
1927  Argentina Buenos Aires France Alexander Alekhine Cuba José Raúl Capablanca 6 3 25 first-to-6 wins
1929  Germany and
 Netherlands
Wiesbaden
Heidelberg
Berlin
The Hague
France Alexander Alekhine Weimar Republic Efim Bogoljubov 11 5 9 first-to-6 wins AND 15 points
1934  Nazi Germany France Alexander Alekhine Nazi Germany Efim Bogoljubov 8 3 15
1935  Netherlands Netherlands Max Euwe France Alexander Alekhine 9 8 13
1937  Netherlands France Alexander Alekhine Netherlands Max Euwe 10 4 11
Interregnum (1946–1948)
Alexander Alekhine died in 1946 as World Chess Champion.
FIDE World Chess Championships (1948–1993)
1948  Netherlands and
 Soviet Union
The Hague
Moscow
Soviet Union Mikhail Botvinnik 4 players 14 points out of 20 5-player, 5-cycle round-robin tournament
1951  Soviet Union Moscow Soviet Union Mikhail Botvinnik Soviet Union David Bronstein 5 5 14 best-of-24
1954  Soviet Union Moscow Soviet Union Mikhail Botvinnik Soviet Union Vasily Smyslov 7 7 10
1957  Soviet Union Moscow Soviet Union Vasily Smyslov Soviet Union Mikhail Botvinnik 6 3 13
1958  Soviet Union Moscow Soviet Union Mikhail Botvinnik Soviet Union Vasily Smyslov 7 5 11
1960  Soviet Union Moscow Soviet Union Mikhail Tal Soviet Union Mikhail Botvinnik 6 2 13
1961  Soviet Union Moscow Soviet Union Mikhail Botvinnik Soviet Union Mikhail Tal 10 5 6
1963  Soviet Union Moscow Soviet Union Tigran Petrosian Soviet Union Mikhail Botvinnik 5 2 15
1966  Soviet Union Moscow Soviet Union Tigran Petrosian Soviet Union Boris Spassky 4 3 17
1969  Soviet Union Moscow Soviet Union Boris Spassky Soviet Union Tigran Petrosian 6 4 13
1972  Iceland Reykjavík United States Bobby Fischer Soviet Union Boris Spassky 7 3 11
1975  Philippines Manila Soviet Union Anatoly Karpov United States Bobby Fischer by default first-to-10 wins
1978  Philippines Baguio Soviet Union Anatoly Karpov  Viktor Korchnoi 6 5 21 first-to-6 wins
1981  Italy Kurhaus
Merano
Soviet Union Anatoly Karpov Switzerland Viktor Korchnoi 6 2 10
1984  Soviet Union Moscow Soviet Union Anatoly Karpov Soviet Union Garry Kasparov 5 3 40 first-to-6 wins; aborted match
1985  Soviet Union Moscow Soviet Union Garry Kasparov Soviet Union Anatoly Karpov 5 3 16 best-of-24
1986  United Kingdom and
 Soviet Union
London
Leningrad
Soviet Union Garry Kasparov Soviet Union Anatoly Karpov 5 4 15
1987  Spain Seville Soviet Union Garry Kasparov Soviet Union Anatoly Karpov 4 4 16
1990  United States and
 France
New York City
Lyon
Soviet Union Garry Kasparov Soviet Union Anatoly Karpov 4 3 17
Classical World Chess Championships (1993–2006)
World Chess Champion Garry Kasparov and challenger Nigel Short split from FIDE, the official world governing body of chess, and played their title match under the auspices of the Professional Chess Association.
1993  United Kingdom London Russia Garry Kasparov England Nigel Short 6 1 13 best-of-24
1995  United States New York City Russia Garry Kasparov India Viswanathan Anand 4 1 13 best-of-20
2000  United Kingdom London Russia Vladimir Kramnik Russia Garry Kasparov 2 0 13 best-of-16
2004   Switzerland Brissago Russia Vladimir Kramnik Hungary Peter Leko 2 2 10 best-of-14
FIDE World Chess Championships (1993–2006)
Garry Kasparov was stripped of his FIDE title after he and challenger Nigel Short split from FIDE in 1993. Anatoly Karpov, former champion and the challenger in the 1990 FIDE World Chess Championship match, was announced as incumbent World Champion. Beginning with the FIDE World Chess Championship 1996, FIDE changed its rules and the incumbent World Champion was no longer automatically qualified for the final match.
1993  Netherlands and
 Indonesia
Zwolle
Arnhem
Amsterdam
Jakarta
Russia Anatoly Karpov Netherlands Jan Timman 6 2 13 best-of-24
1996  Russia Elista Russia Anatoly Karpov United States Gata Kamsky 6 3 9 best-of-20
1998  Netherlands and
  Switzerland
Groningen
Lausanne
Russia Anatoly Karpov India Viswanathan Anand 2+2 2 2 single-elimination tournament with finals best-of-6 + tiebreaks
1999  United States Las Vegas Russia Alexander Khalifman Armenia Vladimir Akopian 2 1 3
2000  India and
 Iran
New Delhi
Teheran
India Viswanathan Anand Spain Alexei Shirov 3 0 1
2002  Russia Moscow Ukraine Ruslan Ponomariov Ukraine Vassily Ivanchuk 2 0 5 single-elimination tournament with finals best-of-8 + tiebreaks
2004  Libya Tripoli Uzbekistan Rustam Kasimdzhanov England Michael Adams 2+1 2 2+1 single-elimination tournament with finals best-of-6 + tiebreaks
2005  Argentina Potrero de los Funes
San Luis
Bulgaria Veselin Topalov 7 players 10 points out of 14 8-player double round-robin tournament
World Chess Championships (2006–present)
2006  Russia Elista Russia Vladimir Kramnik Bulgaria Veselin Topalov 3+2 3+1 6+1 best-of-12 + tiebreaks
2007  Mexico Mexico City India Viswanathan Anand 7 players 9 points out of 14 8-player double round-robin tournament
2008  Germany Bonn India Viswanathan Anand Russia Vladimir Kramnik 3 1 7 best-of-12 + tiebreaks
2010  Bulgaria Sofia India Viswanathan Anand Bulgaria Veselin Topalov 3 2 7
2012  Russia Moscow India Viswanathan Anand Israel Boris Gelfand 1+1 1 10+3
2013  India Chennai Norway Magnus Carlsen India Viswanathan Anand 3 0 7
2014  Russia Sochi Norway Magnus Carlsen India Viswanathan Anand 3 1 7
2016  United States New York City Norway Magnus Carlsen Russia Sergey Karjakin 1+2 1 10+2
2018  United Kingdom London Norway Magnus Carlsen vs. United States Fabiano Caruana


 

Https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_World_Chess_Championships


{Now we can see why the government can see Europeans as a threat to the One World Order establishment, because white people have some of the highest IQ's on average, as well as Northern Asians.}



--------------------

Human Nature Matters


 The only way to construct a robust philosophy for life is to have a clear and realistic picture of what makes humans tick

https://aeon.co/essays/theres-no-philosophy-of-life-without-a-theory-of-human-nature

--------------------


An honest conversation about race is not allowed


 


 https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/an-honest-conversation-about-race-is-not-allowed/2017/08/14/62f159b8-8111-11e7-b359-15a3617c767b_story.html?noredirect=on&utm_term=.9c8529ffc027


---------------------

Scientific racism


 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scientific_racism#Lord_Kames

------------------

High school student's science project linking race, low intelligence spurs investigation


Feb 2018

 http://www.latimes.com/local/lanow/la-me-race-high-school-20180211-story.html


--------------


 Race, Ethnicity, and Genomics: Social Classifications as Proxies of Biological Heterogeneity

 https://genome.cshlp.org/content/12/6/844.full.html


--------------


{Some people are offended when you talk about humans, race and intelligence. We can see
that people get way less upset if you talk about the smartest breeds of dogs instead}.

---------

Simply Ingenious - 10 Smartest Dog Breeds


 1. Border Collie: A workaholic, this breed is the world's premier sheep herder, prized for its intelligence, extraordinary instinct, and working ability.

2. Poodle: Exceptionally smart and active. Bred to retrieve things from the water. The miniature variety may have been used for truffle hunting.

3. German Shepherd: The world's leading police, guard, and military dog -- and a loving family companion and herder.

https://www.petmd.com/dog/pet_lover/evr_dg_smart_dogs


------

13 Smartest Cat Breeds In The World


 https://savemoreanimals.org/smartest-cat-breed/

-------


Most Intelligent Cat Breeds – How clever is your cat?

 

Cat IQ test


 https://www.thehappycatsite.com/most-intelligent-cat-breeds/

--------


Fish intelligence




Fish intelligence is "...the resultant of the process of acquiring, storing in memory, retrieving, combining, comparing, and using in new contexts information and conceptual skills" as it applies to fish.
According to Culum Brown from Macquarie University, "Fish are more intelligent than they appear. In many areas, such as memory, their cognitive powers match or exceed those of ‘higher’ vertebrates including non-human primates."
Fish hold records for the relative brain weights of vertebrates. Most vertebrate species have similar brain-to-body mass ratios. The deep sea bathypelagic bony-eared assfish, has the smallest ratio of all known vertebrates. At the other extreme, the electrogenic elephantnose fish, an African freshwater fish, has one of the largest brain-to-body weight ratios of all known vertebrates (slightly higher than humans) and the highest brain-to-body oxygen consumption ratio of all known vertebrates (three times that for humans)




https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fish_intelligence

--------


Reptiles Are Really Intelligent; We Were Just Giving Them the Wrong Tests

 

Now that scientists are coming up with new experiments and methods, they’re realizing that there’s a lot more to the reptile brain than they once thought


Read more: https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/reptiles-are-really-intelligent-we-were-just-giving-them-the-wrong-tests-180947769/#StM2C6utIfreMtqR.99

---------

Jumping Spiders: Smarter than the Average Spider


http://thescienceexplorer.com/nature/jumping-spiders-smarter-average-spider

---------

Meet your worst nightmare: Portia, the world’s most intelligent spider


https://www.dailystar.co.uk/news/latest-news/543979/portia-worlds-most-intelligent-spider-hunting-thinking-clever-calculate-the-hunt-video

---------

{Why is it that some birds are smarter than others? Why is it that some Parrots are smarter than other Parrots?  Why is it that some birds can run and jump faster than other birds, while other species of birds are the fastest at flying? Why is it that some birds have a different type of skeletal structures than other birds? }

----------

Bird intelligence



Bird intelligence deals with the definition of intelligence and its measurement as it applies to birds. The difficulty of defining or measuring intelligence in non-human animals makes the subject difficult for scientific study. Anatomically, birds (the 10,000 species of which are the direct living descendants of, and so are, theropod dinosaurs) have relatively large brains compared to their head size. The visual and auditory senses are well developed in most species, while the tactile and olfactory senses are well realized only in a few groups. Birds communicate using visual signals as well as through the use of calls and song. The testing of intelligence is therefore based on studying the responses to sensory stimuli.


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bird_intelligence

--------


The Most Intelligent Birds In The World


 When you think about all of the animals in the world, you quickly realize that birds are, in fact, amongst some of the most intelligent creatures we have on Earth. Although there are more than 10,000 bird species worldwide, only a handful of them have made the list for extremely talented and incredibly intelligent. So who are these super intelligent feathered friends? It’s not easy to really say who is number one or number 2, or to choose the smartest and brightest of them all. But this blog gives you a overview, of what birds have made the top of the list in most bird intelligence studies around the world. So sit back and be amazed how smart some of our feathered friends really are!

Crows
Kea
Raven
African Grey
Mccaws
Cockatoo
Amazon Parrots
Jays

 https://wingspanoptics.com/blogs/field-journal/the-most-intelligent-birds-in-the-world


----------

World’s smartest birds


https://www.welcomewildlife.com/worlds-smartest-birds/

-------------


{You will always hear multiple people say that the smartest parrot is an African Grey, followed by some of the birds you see in the following article.  Why is it that so many people I know say that the African Grey Parrot is always one of the top smartest Parrots out there? }


---------

Top 10 Smartest Talking Birds In The World

 

#1 African Grey Parrot


https://themysteriousworld.com/top-10-talking-birds-in-the-world/

----------


Top 5 smartest pet birds


1. African Grey Parrot
2. Macaws and Cockatoos
3. Budgerigar (budgies)
4. Conures, Green Amazons, Parakeets, Quakers, Lovebirds 
5. Canaries, Finches and Bantam Chickens

 http://www.canadianliving.com/life-and-relationships/pets/article/top-5-smartest-pet-birds


---------------

The Top 3 Smartest Pet Birds

 

1. The Intelligent African Grey Parrot

2. The Smartest Parakeet, The Budgerigar

3. The Clever Cockatoo


https://www.petcha.com/the-top-3-smartest-pet-birds/

---------------

Top 10 Smartest Talking Birds in the World

 

1. African Grey Parrot


https://earthnworld.com/2017/05/top-10-smartest-talking-birds-in-the-world/

------------



10 Most Intelligent Animals In The World


 https://themysteriousworld.com/top-10-most-intelligent-animals-in-the-world/

10: Ant
9: Crow
8: Otters
7: Pig
6: Octopus
5: Dog
4: Whale
3: Elephant
2: Dolphin
1:  Great Ape


-----------

Top 10 Smartest Animals



https://animals.howstuffworks.com/animal-facts/10-smartest-animals.htm

10: Rat
9: Octopus
8: Pigeon
7: Squirrel
6: Pig
5: Crow
4: Elephant
3: Orangutan
2: Dolphin
1: Chimpanzee



----------


What Are the Smartest Primates?

The battle for IQ amongst our primate relatives.

http://discovermagazine.com/2006/nov/primate-iq-hierarchy

The Hierarchy of Primate Intelligence

 1    Human
 2    Orangutan
 3    Chimpanzee
 4    Spider monkey
 5    Gorilla
 6    Surili
 7    Macaque
 8    Mandrill
 9    Guenon
 10   Mangabey
 11   Capuchin



-----

Monkey ‘IQ test’ hints at intelligent human ancestor

https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn17318-monkey-iq-test-hints-at-intelligent-human-ancestor/

-----



Smartest Orangutan in the World - Most intelligent Monkey Ever!

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9g2FIZohfXc

------


Human Evolution: The Origin of Tool Use


The way humans make and use tools is perhaps what sets our species apart more than anything else. Now scientists are more and more uncovering the forces that drove our lineage to our heights of tool use — and how tool use, in turn, might have influenced our evolution.


https://www.livescience.com/7968-human-evolution-origin-tool.html


{Notice how certain cultures of humans create advanced tools over other humans, and how they are able to advance their society greater than other civilizations and groups of people. We can see how technology plays a big role in human development as well, including the advancement and acceleration of future technology}.

---------


Why Do Women Have Smaller Brains Than Men? "A Real Scientific Paradox"


 Black men have a larger brain than do white women, even when you correct the body size. Black men have a much lower IQ than white women. To a scientist and researcher, how do you explain this paradox of brain size in the scientific community?

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F29SrufZyF4



---------

Fertility and intelligence


 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fertility_and_intelligence#Criticisms


 The relationship between fertility and intelligence has been investigated in many demographic studies, with contradicting evidence that on a population level, intelligence is negatively correlated with fertility rate, and positively correlated with survival rate of offspring. The combined net effect of these two forces on ultimate population intelligence is not well studied and is unclear. It is theorized that if an inverse correlation of IQ with fertility rate were stronger than the correlation of survival rate, and if heritable factors involved in IQ were consistently expressed in populations with different fertility rates, and if this continued over a significant number of generations, it could lead to a decrease in population IQ scores. The Flynn effect demonstrates an increase in phenotypic IQ scores over time, but confounding environmental factors during the same period of time preclude any conclusion concerning underlying change in genotypic IQ. Other correlates of IQ include income and educational attainment, which are also fertility factors that are inversely correlated with fertility rate, and are to some degree heritable.


------



{Ancient races such as the Maya, and the people of Central America were very smart and had advanced astronomy. Why is it that many of the Central Americans we see today, are so dumbed-down compared to their ancestors many hundreds and thousands of years ago. We can see that many governments are responsible for keeping the masses dumbed-down, and that many of these races should have on average a higher IQ, but they do not, because their government keeps them ignorant. Look at how corrupt most of the governments are in Africa, while it is just some black guy enslaving another black, and this has been going on for thousands of years. We know the government wants to dumb-down the population, but do you really want the people to be that dumb? What about all the chemicals the media claims the government allows in our food and water, in order to keep us dumbed-down? How can we even give people the opportunity to test properly, if they are being chemically and biologically attacked by the government and by groups such as Monsanto.

 There is a saying, the saying is that the smartest rulers keep the masses dumbed-down the most.

What would be the IQ average of some of the ancient Maya people, compared to the people living in Mesoamerica territory today? Many still question with multiple theories, why the Maya civilization went extinct.



----------


Malnutrition Causes Severe Stunting in Guatemalan Children - ABC


http://abcnews.go.com/Health/malnutrition-severe-stunting-guatemalan-children/story?id=12381731

---------

{Malnutrition in different areas of the world has been going on for thousands and thousands of years, this is why some people have stunted their growth more than others. Some question if there were ancient humans that were taller, stronger and faster than current humans we see today. There are many different documentaries and books on many types of giant organisms that existed in ancient times as well.}

 ------------


Study: Financial Stress Dramatically Lowers Your IQ

 

Research shows that feeling poor lowers a person’s IQ test score as much as a night without sleep.


https://money.usnews.com/money/blogs/my-money/2013/10/23/study-financial-stress-dramatically-lowers-your-iq


----------------------

 Toxic combination of air pollution and poverty lowers child IQ


 https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/04/150429182438.htm

---------------


Top 10 Toxins that May Be Lowering Your Child’s IQ Right Now


Flame Retardants
Fluoride
Lead
Triclosan
Mercury
PFCs or Perfluorinated compounds
Arsenic
Toluene
Manganese
Phthalates



 https://www.mamavation.com/featured/top-10-toxins-that-may-be-lowering-your-childs-iq-right-now.html



{Strange, but nearly most of these harmful chemicals are found in clothing and cosmetic products marketed to Africans and Hispanics.}

------------- 


Study Warns: Kids Who Eat Fast Food Have Lower IQs


https://www.thehealthyhomeeconomist.com/study-warns-kids-who-eat-fast-food-have-lower-iqs/


-------------


These Ubiquitous Chemicals May Be Making Us Stupid


 2014

 You may not think much about the class of industrial chemicals called phthalates, which are used both to make plastics more flexible and to dissolve other chemicals. But you’re quite likely on intimate terms with them. According to the Centers for Disease Control, they’re found in “vinyl flooring, adhesives, detergents, lubricating oils, automotive plastics, plastic clothes (raincoats), and personal-care products (soaps, shampoos, hair sprays, and nail polishes).”

 https://www.motherjones.com/food/2014/12/ubiquitous-chemical-thats-making-us-stupid/

--------------

{We can see how many of the elite have their own organic food grown for them in their own private greenhouses. The elite of the world have all of their clothes, home interiors and car interiors custom made with organic and natural fibers. Even when blacks finally get money, half of them spend it on clothing that is poisoning them, including many other everyday consumer items they purchase that is marketed to them.  It is funny how you many of these gangster rappers dressed up in all the toxic clothing that can accelerate cancer that we see in our reports. How many of these people do you honestly think are really going to have the IQ to comprehend or even care. 


Haha you fools, the man has you right where he wants. Now go out and buy some toxic shoes or some basketball jersey made in China that is marketed to you. Do you see how they have these idiots covering themselves in all synthetic materials made by petrochemical companies.

At this rate, we can see how certain parts of society have regressed, while other parts of society have evolved with science and technology.}



------------
------------

 Chapter 3: Science & Invention

-----------
-----------


{Why do we even see some half black and half white scientists up on TV? Many of these
scientists must be smart to be up on TV, am I right?

 We must question how much NASA is lying to many people, including this Neil deGrasse Tyson character, who is actually more of an actor they just put up there to say they have a black man in some high level position up in there. Neil deGrasse Tyson really is more of an actor than a scientist.}

-------

Neil deGrasse Tyson


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neil_deGrasse_Tyson

-------


Scientists Who Are Actually Really Stupid: #1, Neil deGrasse Tyson


2015

http://www.breitbart.com/tech/2015/12/21/scientists-who-are-actually-really-stupid-1-neil-degrasse-tyson/

Neil deGrasse Tyson made the decision a long time ago to be a sort of media cheerleader for science instead of an actual scientist, and although he isn’t a great communicator, it was the right decision because he was unlikely ever to trouble the Nobel committee. Also, he is stupid and his politics are dumb.

Tyson, whom liberals love because they are racists who can’t believe a black guy could be smart enough to be a scientist and so spontaneously ejaculate and soil themselves every time they see him on TV, hasn’t published anything of note for years. The advantage of being a celebrity scientist is that you don’t actually have to do any science. You’re exempted from the usual “publish or perish” rules.

Even when he was making a go of being a proper academic, Tyson didn’t exactly have the most glittering record. He didn’t get the PhD he was studying for at the University of Texas and had to go elsewhere for his qualification. Obviously, rather than take responsibility for his academic performance, Tyson has blamed racism. In reality, Tyson was playing in bands and appearing on stage instead of completing essays. Typical science PhD students are at any given time either studying, teaching or sleeping.

It’s tough to avoid the conclusion that much of what is frustrating about Neil deGrasse Tyson stems from identity politics and the victimhood ideology peddled by leftist academics and journalists. Despite all his media success, Tyson insists that racism is responsible for his academic failures, alluding to sinister “forces” that keep women and ethnic minorities down.

----


{Wow, that is messed up, they are even attacking Neil deGrasse Tyson, man it is a cold world out there.}

--------


{We believe that a black man has just as much right to live as a white man. Do our children not enjoy the freedom to play and enjoy life as much as your children? What about many of the great African inventors? Many different people of all races even think differently, and come up with new inventions.}


-------

List of African-American inventors and scientists

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_African-American_inventors_and_scientists

-------

10 African Inventors You Did Not Know

https://www.africanexponent.com/post/8116-10-african-inventors-you-did-not-know


------


10 Under 30 African Inventors Set To Change The World

http://venturesafrica.com/10-under-30-african-inventors-set-to-change-the-world/


--------

LIST OF KNOWN AFRICAN-AMERICAN INVENTORS 1845-1980

http://johnmpinto.com/blkinvlist.pdf

---------


List of African-American mathematicians


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_African-American_mathematicians

-----

Ancient Egyptian Inventions


https://discoveringegypt.com/ancient-egyptian-inventions/

{Many cannot even list all of the inventions of Ancient Egypt. We know that Egypt has been invaded and conquered multiple times by foreign nations and armies that brought foreign technology to Egypt as well.}

---------


How Islamic inventors changed the world


Though the Chinese invented saltpetre gunpowder, and used it in their fireworks, it was the Arabs who worked out that it could be purified using potassium nitrate for military use. Muslim incendiary devices terrified the Crusaders. By the 15th century they had invented both a rocket, which they called a "self-moving and combusting egg", and a torpedo - a self-propelled pear-shaped bomb with a spear at the front which impaled itself in enemy ships and then blew up.

https://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/how-islamic-inventors-changed-the-world-6106905.html


{This must explain why they are so good at making bombs.}

---------

List of inventions in the medieval Islamic world

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_inventions_in_the_medieval_Islamic_world


--------

List of Muslim scientists

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Muslim_scientists

---------

15 Famous Muslim (Arab & Persian) Scientists and their Inventions

https://www.famousscientists.org/famous-muslim-arab-persian-scientists-and-their-inventions/


--------

{We can see that many different tribes of White looking Arabs, Druze and different tribes exist in the Middle East, and it is not just a bunch of Arabs. However, we see how Muslims are now trying to genocide off other tribes, and how the Middle East is slowly turning into being mostly Arabic and black.

Right now America is at war with radical Islam, so that Sharia law does not spread across the globe. What good is an invention to your people, if many of the Muslims try to genocide off other races and cultures. We think that Africans, Arabs, Orientals and Europeans should all have their own lands. We think that we should regulate immigration better in all nations, so that we can all live together as diverse humans beings.}

-------

Research: Arab Inventors Make the U.S. More Innovative

https://hbr.org/2017/02/arab-inventors-make-the-u-s-more-innovative

---------

{The problem is when Arabic people come to America, is that many can have over a dozen children, this is just like letting a dozen refugees into your country, then those dozen refugees have hundreds of offspring eventually. The problem with having Arabs and blacks reproduce in your country, is that you allow the opportunity for a higher chance for those offspring to turn out to be Muslims, then create Sharia Law in your country to overthrow and genocide off your people and culture. It is not worth risking the security of western nations, to have a bunch of low IQ Islamic Sharia tyrants try to kill off humanity. For more information on this subject, view our article " Islamic Sharia Law & Genocide - The Middle East Conflict Investigation " - IslamicShariaGenocdie.Blogspot.com .


The problem with war, is you have some of the smartest and most athletic people that are the best soldiers, and end up dying in war. Now the best people who should have passed on their genes, can no longer pass on their genes. Now the people that were able to pass on their genes were the people who were not fit to go to war, and then even now have multiple kids. To many people it just does not seems right that many good people lose their lives in war, and who knows what type of great lineage and DNA has been lost over many thousands of years. This is why I believe we should preserve all races and travel to space.
We could have trillions of Orientals, trillions of Africans, trillions of Middle Easterners and trillions of White people. Should have programs where super intelligent people can breed with super intelligent people? Many of the people who are mentally or physically disabled in certain ways, claim that they are actually the new evolution of thinkers. Some think that Steven Hawking is considered to be one of the smartest people on Earth, while others disagree with his politics and say he is not. Even if you agree or disagree with Steven Hawking and his politics, he is what you would call an intelligent person. I think even people such as Steven Hawking should have the right to reproduce if they want, and who knows what kind of evolution his offspring would make. Would this mean that his children would most likely not be able to walk if they were born? What if there were a way to get rid of some the genetic dysgenics in Steven Hawking, and to where if he could have children, they could be free of physical birth defects. I think we should regulate who can breed with who more. If we were going to live in space, do you think that we should regulate smarter groups of people breeding with smarter groups of people? 

We are not going to have it to where we have trillions of all the races, but somehow the white race faced genocide in the middle of it because of the UN, the EU and the Vatican.



{Look at how the German people win a FIFA world cup in soccer, while many Muslim countries do not even come close to ever winning. Tribally speaking, and why many races of people are very picky when breeding with other races.

 The last thing Europe needs, is a bunch of Islamic Pygmies running around, while trying to implement Sharia Law. We should not jeopardize the chances of European people accelerating in sports, science and achieving to their maximum potential in the future. We are going to set laws in place so that we do not have a bunch of low IQ Muslims running around Europe and America, trying to ruin the European gene pool. Places such as Europe should be reserved for a mosly white native European population. We should deport many non-Native Europeans out of Europe, and respect the European people. I am saying all this to avoid a race where, where more people would die, and lose the lineage of European DNA we are trying to keep. We also love all the races equally, and why China should be mostly Chinese, same with Japan. The Arabs also deserve their own lands. We can have immigration and all races in other countries, but to a minimum of immigrantion.

For more information on this subject, view our article " Islamic Sharia Law & Genocide - The Middle East Conflict Investigation " - IslamicShariaGenocdie.Blogspot.com

What if we do not have the capability to travel and populate space with billions or trillions of people?

I believe that we should have population control, race control and immigration control on Earth, in order to counter the one world government and one world order. If we want to have billions of more people living, we should do it off the planet, and not risk causing more damage to the planet with many different variables. Look at the amount of harmful chemicals and pesticides the world uses, and we cannot add more of these harmful chemicals to the planet. If we were living more organic, then I would say it might actually be possible, but there are many variables that I honestly am not fully aware of myself. Are we just going to let the Chinese people have another billion people? What about all the foreigners and Orientals breeding like rats in America, and they are doing it to try and overthrow American society. We are calling for the removal of all immigrants out of Europe and America, all immigrants who were immigrants after 1970 need to be removed, those immigrants and their offspring need to leave or face forced deportation. This is being done to counter the UN and the EU from trying to genocide off western nations, and replace them with their one world government. Why it it that they have segregated jails, then we see in society what happens when you let a bunch of Muslims loose in Europe. This is why I believe that white people deserve their own land, just as Orientals, Arabs and blacks all deserve their land. If the rest of the world cannot respect European culture and letting Europeans have their own land, then we predict a race war will happen in Europe and America. We are tired of the past history of Muslims and Africans that constantly try to genocide off the white man and European culture, and that the scientific community is now going to stop these groups with lesser IQ points, from trying to hurt and genocide off groups that have higher IQ points. 

 Look at the low IQ Muslims that invaded Spain and Italy, and still are doing it to this day.
America must not allow UN soldiers or EU soldiers to step foot on American soil, or they will turn America into the next Sharia Europe. The UN is the enemy of the free people of the world, and we need to stop the UN and EU at all costs from trying to genocide off the European people.}


-------

{Even though Muslims may have many great inventions, that is great, but we need to ban all Muslims in America and Europe.

If you are a Muslim, you need to leave America and go work on your projects elsewhere.
A lot of my good friends have even died fighting against your Sharia Law. Look how dumb the Muslim man is waging war on so many people, risking a nuclear war and even putting his entire bloodline in jeopardy.
Sometimes we must ask, are the inventions even worth the hassles for some of these Muslims. What happens next, is some Muslim going to invent a new way to terrorize the west with a super attack. I wish the Muslims would grow up and stop acting like such a cowardly group of people. This is why a record people are leaving Islam, cause they realize that the security of their family is more important than the poison of Sharia Law, that has already caused so much harm to the free world. It is a shame that many Arabic people have to think about what this stupid religion has become, and I really do apologize for how many people Sharia law has hurt.}



--------

{You will notice how many more inventions Europe has over Africa.} 

-------


List of German inventors and discoverers  - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_German_inventors_and_discoverers

List of German inventions and discoveries - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_German_inventions_and_discoveries

List of French inventions and discoveries - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_French_inventions_and_discoveries

Famous French inventors list - https://www.ranker.com/list/famous-french-inventors-list/reference

List of English inventors and designers - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_English_inventors_and_designers

Category:English inventors - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:English_inventors

Greatest 50 British inventions: full list - https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/9787698/Greatest-50-British-inventions-full-list.html

Scottish inventions and discoveries  - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scottish_inventions_and_discoveries


Top 10 Scottish scientists and inventors that changed the world  -
http://www.scotlandnow.dailyrecord.co.uk/lifestyle/top-10-scottish-scientists-inventors-7441606

List of Welsh inventors - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Welsh_inventors

Category:Welsh inventions - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Welsh_inventions

15 amazing ways that Wales changed the world - http://www.wow247.co.uk/2016/07/06/15-amazing-ways-that-wales-changed-the-world/

List of Italian inventors - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Italian_inventors

List of Italian inventions - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Italian_inventions

List of Swiss inventions and discoveries - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Swiss_inventions_and_discoveries

List of Swiss inventors and discoverers - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Swiss_inventors_and_discoverers

Category: Dutch inventions - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Dutch_inventions

List of Dutch inventions and discoveries - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Dutch_inventions_and_discoveries

List of Spanish inventors and discoverers - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Spanish_inventors_and_discoverers

List of Spanish inventions and discoveries - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Spanish_inventions_and_discoveries

List of Portuguese inventions and discoveries - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Portuguese_inventions_and_discoveries

List of Austrian inventions and discoveries - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Austrian_inventions_and_discoveries

List of Austrian inventors and discoverers - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Austrian_inventors_and_discoverers

6 Things We Owe to the Vikings - https://www.history.com/news/history-lists/6-things-we-owe-to-the-vikings

Category:Norwegian inventions - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Norwegian_inventions

List of Swedish inventions - http://svea.wikia.com/wiki/List_of_Swedish_inventions

List of Swedish inventors - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Swedish_inventors

Category:Swedish inventions - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Swedish_inventions

25 Things You Might Not Know Came From Sweden - https://list25.com/25-things-you-might-not-know-came-from-sweden/

13 Inventions We Have to Thank Finland For - https://theculturetrip.com/europe/finland/articles/13-inventions-we-have-to-thank-finland-for/

Category:Finnish inventions - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Finnish_inventions

Category:Danish inventions - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Danish_inventions

Famous Danish inventions  - http://denmark.dk/en/meet-the-danes/famous-danish-inventions

Three brilliant inventions that Denmark ignored - http://sciencenordic.com/three-brilliant-inventions-denmark-ignored

Timeline of Polish science and technology - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_Polish_science_and_technology

Category:Polish inventions - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Polish_inventions

List of Croatian inventions and discoveries - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Croatian_inventions_and_discoveries


List of Greek inventions and discoveries - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Greek_inventions_and_discoveries

Category:Greek inventions - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Greek_inventions

{You can't even list all of the inventions invented by the ancient Greeks, this includes all the
vast knowledge and libraries that burnt down that contained lost knowledge.}

-------------

List of Serbian inventions and discoveries - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Serbian_inventions_and_discoveries

List of Serbian inventors and discoverers - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Serbian_inventors_and_discoverers

Category:Hungarian inventions - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Hungarian_inventions
   
Top ten Romanian inventions - http://positivenewsromania.com/2016/04/28/top-ten-romanian-inventions/

List of Romanian inventors and discoverers  - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Romanian_inventors_and_discoverers

List of Slovaks - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Slovaks

List of Bulgarian inventors and discoverers - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Bulgarian_inventors_and_discoverers

Inventions of Ukrainians, which the world cherishes - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Ukrainian_inventions world cherishes

Inventions of Ukrainians, which the world cherishes - http://uprom.info/en/blogs/istoriya/vinahodi-ukrayintsiv-yakimi-dorozhit-ves-svit/

Category:Ukrainian inventions -  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Ukrainian_inventions

--------

The Most Significant Current Discoveries (Czech) - http://www.czech.cz/en/66499-the-most-significant-current-discoveries

Category:Inventions by country  - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Inventions_by_country

European Inventions - https://europeisnotdead.com/video/broadcasts-of-europe/european-inventions/

Category:Russian inventions  - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Russian_inventions

Timeline of Russian innovation - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_Russian_innovation

----------

List of Indian inventions and discoveries - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Indian_inventions_and_discoveries

List of Japanese inventions and discoveries - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Japanese_inventions_and_discoveries

List of Chinese inventions - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Chinese_inventions

List of Korean inventions and discoveries - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Korean_inventions_and_discoveries

World famous inventions of Vietnamese - http://english.vietnamnet.vn/fms/special-reports/127464/world-famous-inventions-of-vietnamese.html

Category:Vietnamese inventions - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Vietnamese_inventions

List of Thai inventions and discoveries - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Thai_inventions_and_discoveries

 

----------

{There are also many ancient inventions by the Mongolian people that are often rarely even mentioned over the internet.}

---------

List of Malaysian inventions and discoveries

 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Malaysian_inventions_and_discoveries

 ---------------

List of Indonesian inventions and discoveries 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Indonesian_inventions_and_discoveries


{Why is it that South Asia does not have as many inventions as East Asia, such as Japan, Korea and China. We can see that the nations with more developed technology also have a problem with more pollution than with undeveloped countries. China does have on average a high IQ rate, but they really are a bunch of idiots when it comes to how they trash their environment.}

---------------

{Let's face it, white people have really good DNA for mixing with other races, can we all agree?
I can see why other races would want to reproduce with a white person, to where your DNA gets many advantages to having European DNA. We can see how so many of the most beautiful women in different countries such as Thailand, Vietnam, etc are half Asian and half white. Of course native Asian women are just as beautiful and have their own unique beauty, but
some of the mixed race women coming out of Asia are very adorable.


We can see why white women are some of the most demanded women in the world, for dozens of different reasons. We just don't want to lose our identity including traits as a people, the European people must fight and resist genocide from the European Union. We can see that any group or any race of people want to see more of their people thrive and expand, and not face genocide.}

-------------------

{Let us now take a look at how Europeans were some of the first groups of people to travel to America.}

--------


 The Mysterious Dark Ages (HD Ancient Middle Ages History Documentary) 


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eDG5jtGGdWU


--------------



DNA Evidence Provides Proof Egypt Was Founded By Central Europeans 

 

July 5, 2017

 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8WIBkwzwioA

---


PREHISTORIC HUMANS IN THE NEW WORLD (AMAZING ANCIENT HISTORY DOCUMENTARY) - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c4Ozox0FIO8



-------------


THE REAL TRUTH ABOUT VIKINGS (INCREDIBLE HISTORY DOCUMENTARY)


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z1w7e46pHuc -


------------------


The Viking Deception | Top Documentary Films | History Documentary


Mar 29, 2015


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JnVzXojR__0



----------------


Europeans & Asians In Prehistoric America : Journey to 10,000 BC - Science Documentaries


 Nov 28, 2014


 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zz91Gzk-pPA


----------



Native Americans actually came from a tiny mountain region in Siberia, DNA research reveals


http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2092258/Native-Americans-actually-came-tiny-mountain-region-Russia-DNA-research-reveals.html

--------

Genetic history of indigenous peoples of the Americas

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetic_history_of_indigenous_peoples_of_the_Americas


----------


Prehistoric Europeans. First Native Americans (1 of 3)


 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GS5eDwYePiQ

------------


Mysterious sunstones in medieval Viking texts could really have worked


A new study says Vikings could have used these stones to navigate to Greenland.

https://arstechnica.com/science/2018/04/mysterious-sunstones-in-medieval-viking-texts-could-really-have-worked/


-------------

DNA Results of Ancient Native American Mummies - ROBERT SEPEHR


  Mar 18, 2018

 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IfOZg3X_GmA


-----------


FINALLY: DNA Results Of The Paracas Elongated Skulls Of Peru: Part 1 


 Feb 5, 2018

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r1k_b-jmz3k


----------



The Origin of the Blue Eyes: The Ancient 'Gods' and Their Royal Descendants



http://humansarefree.com/2014/04/the-origin-of-blue-eyes-ancient-gods.html



-------------



First South Americans were Black Aborigines


 May 9, 2012


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r6IrMjfbh6E


-----------




The Africans Who Discovered America Thousands Of Years Before Columbus


Mar 01, 2013



http://www.nairaland.com/1212037/africans-discovered-america-thousands-years




-------------


Mysterious Nubian Stone Tablets Have Been Discovered in a Vast African 'City of The Dead'


This is one of Africa's oldest written languages.

12 APR 2018

https://www.sciencealert.com/nubian-funerary-artefacts-meroitic-texts-found-in-sedeinga-sudan?perpetual=yes&limitstart=1


-------------


----------------

----------------


 Chapter 4: Genetic disorders and diseases (Dysgenics)


----------------

----------------

{We are for promoting and expanding all human races to live together in peace and harmony. We even believe that all human races should be able to travel to space, and expand all the races on different planets and even possibly some moons. We could even gather and harvest many ideas, from trillions of people in the Universe. We can eliminate disease and poverty, and work on making the Universe a better place for all to live.}


----------------


List of genetic disorders

 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_genetic_disorders

Sortable table
Disorder name Mutation type Chromosome
1p36 deletion syndrome D 1p36
18p deletion syndrome D 18p
21-hydroxylase deficiency
6p21.3
47,XXX
see triple X syndrome
C X
47,XXY
see Klinefelter syndrome
C X
5-ALA dehydratase-deficient porphyria
see ALA dehydratase deficiency


AAT
see alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency

14q32
aceruloplasminemia
3p26.3
Achondrogenesis type II
12q13.11
achondroplasia substitution 4p16.3
Acrocephaly
see Apert syndrome

10q26.13
acute intermittent porphyria

adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency

Adrenoleukodystrophy

Alagille syndrome

Albinism

Alexander disease

alkaptonuria

ALS
see amyotrophic lateral sclerosis


Alström syndrome

Alzheimer's disease

Amelogenesis imperfecta

androgen insensitivity syndrome

Anemia

Angelman syndrome

ataxia telangiectasia

B variant of the Hexosaminidase GM2 gangliosidosis
see Sandhoff disease


Beare-Stevenson cutis gyrata syndrome
10q26
Benjamin syndrome

biotinidase deficiency

Birth Defects

Bloom syndrome
15q26.1
Birt–Hogg–Dubé syndrome
17
Broad Thumb-Hallux syndrome
see Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome


CADASIL syndrome P 3
CGD Chronic granulomatous disorder

Campomelic dysplasia C 17q24.3-q25.1
Canavan disease

Cancer

Caylor cardiofacial syndrome
see 22q11.2 deletion syndrome
D 22q
CF
see cystic fibrosis
D (most common);
or substitution
CFTR (7q31.2)
Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease

CHARGE syndrome

Chondrodystrophy with dysplasia
see otospondylomegaepiphyseal dysplasia


Cockayne syndrome

Coffin–Lowry syndrome

collagenopathy, types II and XI

Cowden syndrome

CPO deficiency
see hereditary coproporphyria


Cri du chat D 5p
Crohn's disease, P 16q12
Crouzon syndrome
FGFR2 (10q25.3-q26)
Crouzon syndrome with acanthosis nigricans
see Crouzonodermoskeletal syndrome


cutis gyrata syndrome of Beare-Stevenson
see Beare-Stevenson cutis gyrata syndrome


Genetic hypercalciuria
see Dent's disease

Xp11.22
de Grouchy syndrome 1
see De Grouchy syndrome
D 18p
Di George's syndrome D 22q
distal hereditary motor neuropathy

Ehlers–Danlos syndrome

Erythroblastic anemia
see beta-thalassemia


FA
see fanconi anemia


Fabry disease P Xq22.1
factor V Leiden thrombophilia

familial adenomatous polyposis

familial dysautonomia

FG syndrome

Friedreich's ataxia

G6PD deficiency

galactosemia

Gaucher disease

Glioma, retinal
see retinoblastoma


Glycine encephalopathy
see Nonketotic hyperglycinemia


Haemochromatosis
see hemochromatosis


Harlequin type ichthyosis

hemophilia

hepatoerythropoietic porphyria

Hereditary coproporphyria P 3q12
Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT)

Hereditary Inclusion Body Myopathy
see skeletal muscle regeneration


Hereditary multiple exostoses

Hereditary spastic paraplegia
see infantile-onset ascending hereditary spastic paralysis


Hereditary spinal ataxia
see Friedreich's ataxia


HNPP
see hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies


homocystinuria

Huntington's disease T 4p16.3
Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome
see progeria


hyperoxaluria, primary

hyperphenylalaninemia

Hypochondrogenesis

Hypochondroplasia
4p16.3
ICF syndrome
see Immunodeficiency, centromere instability and facial anomalies syndrome

20q11.2
Incontinentia pigmenti P Xq28
infantile-onset ascending hereditary spastic paralysis

Isodicentric 15
see isodicentric 15
Inv dup 15q11-14
Jackson–Weiss syndrome

Joubert syndrome

JPLS
see Juvenile Primary Lateral Sclerosis

ALS2
Keloid disorder

Kniest dysplasia

Krabbe disease

Lesch-Nyhan syndrome

Li-Fraumeni syndrome

lipoprotein lipase deficiency, familial

Marfan syndrome
15
McCune–Albright syndrome
20 q13.2-13.3
McLeod syndrome
X
MEDNIK[2][3] D AP1S1
Mediterranean fever, familial

Menkes disease

Mental retardation with osteocartilaginous abnormalities
see Coffin–Lowry syndrome


Methemoglobinemia

methylmalonic acidemia

Micro syndrome
2q21.3
Microcephaly P 1q31 (ASPM)
Mowat-Wilson syndrome

Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS I)

Muenke syndrome

Muscular dystrophy

Muscular dystrophy, Duchenne and Becker type

myotonic dystrophy

Neurofibromatosis type I
17q11.2
Neurofibromatosis type II

Niemann-Pick
see Niemann–Pick disease
NPA, NPB, NPC1, NPC2,
Sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 1
SMPD1
Nonketotic hyperglycinemia
see Glycine encephalopathy


nonsyndromic deafness

Noonan syndrome

Ogden syndrome P X
osteogenesis imperfecta

pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration

Patau Syndrome (Trisomy 13)

PCC deficiency
see propionic acidemia


PCT
see porphyria cutanea tarda


Pendred syndrome

Peutz-Jeghers syndrome

Pfeiffer syndrome

phenylketonuria

Polycystic kidney disease P 16 (PKD1) or 4 (PKD2)
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)

porphyria

Prader-Willi syndrome

Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD)

primary pulmonary hypertension

protein C deficiency

protein S deficiency

protoporphyria
see erythropoietic protoporphyria


Prion disease

pseudo-Gaucher disease

pseudoxanthoma elasticum

Rett syndrome

RSTS
see Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome


Schwartz–Jampel syndrome

SED congenita
see spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita


sickle cell anemia P 11p15
Siderius X-linked mental retardation syndrome
caused by mutations in the PHF8 gene
PD Xp11.22
Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome

Smith Magenis Syndrome

spinal muscular atrophy

spinocerebellar ataxia

SSB syndrome
see SADDAN


Stickler syndrome

Strudwick syndrome
see spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, Strudwick type


Tay-Sachs disease

tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency

thanatophoric dysplasia

Treacher Collins syndrome
5q32-q33.1
Trisomy 21
see Down syndrome


Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) see Tuberous sclerosis
TSC1, TSC2
Turner's syndrome
see Turner syndrome

X
Usher syndrome

variegate porphyria

von Hippel-Lindau disease

Waardenburg syndrome

Weissenbacher-Zweymüller syndrome

Williams Syndrome

Wilson disease

Wolf–Hirschhorn syndrome D 4p
Xeroderma pigmentosum ERCC4 15
X-linked mental retardation and macroorchidism
see fragile X syndrome

X
X-linked spinal-bulbar muscle atrophy
see spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy

X
X-SCID
see X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency

X
XLSA
see X-linked sideroblastic anemia

X
XXXX syndrome
see 48, XXXX

X
XXXXX syndrome
see 49, XXXXX

X
XYY syndrome
see 47,XYY syndrome

X

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_genetic_disorders



-----------------




Genetic Disorders in Arab Populations


 http://www.cags.org.ae/cbc02ga.pdf

{Over 750 Genetic Disorders in Arab populations}


----------------


Medical genetics of Jews

 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medical_genetics_of_Jews

The medical genetics of Jews is the study, screening, and treatment of genetic disorders more common in particular Jewish populations than in the population as a whole. The genetics of Ashkenazi Jews have been particularly well-studied, resulting in the discovery of many genetic disorders associated with this ethnic group. In contrast, the medical genetics of Sephardic Jews and Mizrahi Jews are more complicated, since they are more genetically diverse and consequently no genetic disorders are more common in these groups as a whole; instead, they tend to have the genetic diseases common in their various countries of origin. Several organizations, such as Dor Yeshorim, offer screening for Ashkenazi genetic diseases, and these screening programs have had a significant impact, in particular by reducing the number of cases of Tay–Sachs disease.
Ashkenazi diseases

The most detailed genetic analysis study of Ashkenazi was published in September 2014 by Shai Carmi and his team at Columbia University. The results of the detailed study show that today's 10 million Ashkenazi Jews descend from a population of only 350 individuals who lived about 600–800 years ago. That population derived from both Europe and the Middle East. There is evidence that the population bottleneck may have allowed deleterious alleles to become more prevalent in the population due to genetic drift. As a result, this group has been particularly intensively studied, so many mutations have been identified as common in Ashkenazis. Of these diseases, many also occur in other Jewish groups and in non-Jewish populations, although the specific mutation which causes the disease may vary between populations. For example, two different mutations in the glucocerebrosidase gene causes Gaucher's disease in Ashkenazis, which is their most common genetic disease, but only one of these mutations is found in non-Jewish groups. A few diseases are unique to this group; for example, familial dysautonomia is almost unknown in other populations.
Genetic disorders common in Ashkenazi Jews


Genetic disorders common in Ashkenazi Jews
Disease Mode of inheritance Gene Carrier frequency
 Favism X-linked G6PD
 Bloom syndrome Autosomal recessive BLM 1/100
 Breast cancer and ovarian cancer Autosomal dominant BRCA1 or BRCA2 1/100 and 1/75, respectively
 Canavan disease Autosomal recessive ASPA 1/60
 Congenital deafness Autosomal recessive GJB2 or GJB6 1/25
 Cystic fibrosis Autosomal recessive CFTR 1/25
 Haemophilia C Autosomal recessive F11 1/12
 Familial dysautonomia Autosomal recessive IKBKAP 1/30
 Familial hypercholesterolemia Autosomal dominant LDLR 1/69
 Familial hyperinsulinism Autosomal recessive ABCC8 1/125–1/160
 Fanconi anemia C Autosomal recessive FACC 1/100
 Gaucher disease Autosomal recessive GBA 1/7–1/18
 Glycogen Storage Disease type 1a Autosomal recessive G6PC 1/71
 Mucolipidosis IV Autosomal recessive MCOLN1 1/110
 Niemann–Pick (type A) Autosomal recessive SMPD1 1/90
 Nonclassical 21 OHase deficiency Autosomal recessive CPY21 1/6
 Parkinson's disease Autosomal dominant LRRK2 1/42
 Tay–Sachs Autosomal recessive HEXA 1/25–1/30
 Torsion dystonia Autosomal dominant DYT1 1/4000
 Usher syndrome Autosomal recessive PCDH15 1/72

Tay–Sachs disease

Tay–Sachs disease, which can present as a fatal illness of children that causes mental deterioration prior to death, was historically more prevalent among Ashkenazi Jews, although high levels of the disease are also found in some Pennsylvania Dutch, southern Louisiana Cajun, and eastern Quebec French Canadian populations.[20] Since the 1970s, however, proactive genetic testing has been quite effective in eliminating Tay–Sachs from the Ashkenazi Jewish population.

Lipid transport diseases

Gaucher's disease, in which lipids accumulate in inappropriate locations, occurs most frequently among Ashkenazi Jews; the mutation is carried by roughly one in every 15 Ashkenazi Jews, compared to one in 100 of the general American population. Gaucher's disease can cause brain damage and seizures, but these effects are not usually present in the form manifested among Ashkenazi Jews; while sufferers still bruise easily, and it can still potentially rupture the spleen, it generally has only a minor impact on life expectancy.

Ashkenazi Jews are also highly affected by other lysosomal storage diseases, particularly in the form of lipid storage disorders. Compared to other ethnic groups, they more frequently act as carriers of mucolipidosis and Niemann–Pick disease, the latter of which can prove fatal.

The occurrence of several lysosomal storage disorders in the same population suggests the alleles responsible might have conferred some selective advantage in the past. This would be similar to the hemoglobin allele which is responsible for sickle-cell disease, but solely in people with two copies; those with just one copy of the allele have a sickle cell trait and gain partial immunity to malaria as a result. This effect is called heterozygote advantage.

Some of these disorders may have become common in this population due to selection for high levels of intelligence (see Ashkenazi intelligence). However, other research suggests no difference is found between the frequency of this group of diseases and other genetic diseases in Ashkenazis, which is evidence against any specific selectivity towards lysosomal disorders.

Familial dysautonomia


Diseases inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern often occur in endogamous populations. Among Ashkenazi Jews, a higher incidence of specific genetic disorders and hereditary diseases have been verified, including:

Non-Ashkenazi disorders

In contrast to the Ashkenazi population, Sephardic and Mizrahi Jews are much more divergent groups, with ancestors from Spain, Portugal, Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria, Italy, Libya, the Balkans, Iran, Iraq, India, and Yemen, with specific genetic disorders found in each regional group, or even in specific subpopulations in these regions.

Genetic disorders common in Sephardic and Mizrahi Jews
Disease Mode of inheritance Gene or enzyme Carrier frequency Populations
 Oculocutaneous albinism Autosomal recessive TYR 1/30 Morocco
 Ataxia telangiectasia Autosomal recessive ATM 1/80 Morocco, Tunisia
 Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease Autosomal dominant PRNP 1/24,000 Libya
 Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis Autosomal recessive CYP27A1 1/70 Morocco
Cystinuria Autosomal recessive SLC7A9 1/25 Libya
Familial Mediterranean fever Autosomal recessive MEFV 1/5–7 All MENA (Middle Eastern and North African countries).
 Glycogen storage disease III Autosomal recessive AGL 1/35 Morocco, North Africa
 Limb girdle muscular dystrophy Autosomal recessive DYSF 1/10 Libya
 Tay–Sachs Autosomal recessive HEXA 1/110 Morocco
 11-β-hydroxylase deficiency Autosomal recessive CYP11B1 1/30–1/128 Morocco
 
 
 
                                           Genetic disorders common in Mizrahi Jews

 
Disease Mode of inheritance Gene or enzyme Carrier frequency Populations
 Beta-thalassemia Autosomal recessive HBB 1/6 Iran, Iraq, Kurdistan
 Factor VII deficiency Autosomal recessive F7 1/40 Iran
 Familial Mediterranean fever Autosomal recessive, but heterozygous carriers also can show clinical manifestations. MEFV 1/5–1/7 Iraq, Iran, Armenia, North African Jews, Ashkenazi
 Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency X-linked G6PD 1/4 Iraq, esp. Kurdistan, Syria and all MENA countries. Female heterozygotes can also show clinical symptoms due to lyonization (X-inactivation) especially during pregnancy.
 Inclusion body myopathy Autosomal recessive GNE 1/12 Iran
 Metachromatic leukodystrophy Autosomal recessive ARSA 1/50 Yemen
 Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy Autosomal, recessive or dominant PABPN1 1/7 Bukhara
 Phenylketonuria Autosomal recessive PAH 1/35 Yemen

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medical_genetics_of_Jews



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Ashkenazi Jewish Genetic Panel (AJGP) - What Are Ashkenazi Jewish Genetic Diseases?


Ashkenazi Jewish genetic diseases are a group of rare disorders that occur more often in people of Eastern European (Ashkenazi) Jewish heritage than in the general population. Even though most of these diseases are severe and can cause early death, some can be treated to reduce symptoms and prolong life. Some of these diseases can be found during pregnancy through chorionic villus sampling (CVS) or amniocentesis. This testing is done usually if one or both parents are carriers of a genetic disease.

Diseases in this group include:

    Bloom syndrome. Babies with this disease are born small and remain shorter than normal as they grow. Their skin may look red, and they have more lung and ear infections than children normally have.
    Canavan disease. This disease gradually destroys brain tissue.
    Cystic fibrosis. This disease causes very thick mucus in the lungs and problems with digesting food.
    Familial dysautonomia (FD). People with this problem cannot feel pain, they sweat a lot, and they have trouble with speech and coordination.
    Fanconi anemia. People with this problem do not have enough blood cells and have problems with the heart, kidneys, arms, or legs. They also are more likely to get cancer.
    Gaucher disease. This disease causes a type of fat called glucocerebroside to build up in certain cells of the liver, spleen, and bone marrow.
    Mucolipidosis IV. This problem causes the nervous system to deteriorate, or break down, over time.
    Niemann-Pick disease (type A). This disease causes a type of fat called sphingomyelin to build up in cells of the liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and bone marrow.
    Tay-Sachs disease. This disease causes a type of fat called ganglioside to build up in the cells of the brain and nervous system.
    Torsion dystonia. People with this problem have ongoing spasms that twist the muscles in their arms, legs, and sometimes their body. Testing for this condition may not always be done.

About 1 out of 4 people of Ashkenazi Jewish heritage is a carrier of one of these genetic conditions, most commonly of Gaucher disease, cystic fibrosis, Tay-Sachs disease, familial dysautonomia, or Canavan disease.1


 http://www.webmd.com/children/tc/ashkenazi-jewish-genetic-panel-ajgp-what-are-ashkenazi-jewish-genetic-diseases



---------------


Jewish Genetic Disease Consortium (JGDC)
Sephardic and Mizrahi Diseases

There is no single preconception carrier-screening panel for people of Sephardic or Mizrahi background. Carrier screening is dependent upon country of origin. People of Sephardic or Mizrahi background should seek genetic counseling.


http://www.jewishgeneticdiseases.org/jewish-genetic-diseases/



---------------------------------



All About Genetic Diseases That Strike Sephardic Jews


 The Forward Staff has compiled a guide to the most common heritable “Sephardic Jewish diseases,” with information on symptoms, causes and carrier rates for each, as well as the geographic regions from which affected Jewish populations originate.


These diseases are mostly caused by recessive genetic mutations, meaning that mutations must be present in both copies (alleles) of the gene for the associated condition to be expressed. When both parents carry a given mutation, each child of theirs has a 25% of developing the associated disease. This is why couples with at least one partner of Sephardic or Mizrahi origin are encouraged to undergo screening if they plan to have children.


Unlike Ashkenazi Jews, who share ethnic commonalities regardless of country of origin,” Sephardi” is a broad label. Subgroups like Moroccan Jews or Iranian Jews have distinct characteristics, making universal screening panels for inherited genetic diseases for all Sephardic and Mizrahi Jews impractical. Therefore, it’s best to discuss one’s family heritage with a doctor or genetic counselor in order to receive screening recommendations.


The Sephardic Health Organization for Referral and Education recommends that non-Ashkenazi Jewish couples get tested for the 19 most common Ashkenazi Jewish diseases as well — because some of the diseases, such as cystic fibrosis and spinal muscular atrophy, can also be found among non-Ashkenazi populations. Screenings usually require blood samples.

Data on the estimated carrier frequency and the affected Jewish population are courtesy of the Jewish Genetic Disease Consortium in New York.


Dr. Adele Schneider, the medical director of the Einstein Victor Center for the Prevention of Jewish Genetic Diseases in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, has contributed to this section.


   (1) Alpha Thalassemia

   (2) Ataxia Telangiectasia

   (3) Beta Thalassemia

   (4) Corticosterone Methyloxidase Type 2 Deficiency

   (5) Costeff Optical Atrophy

   (6) Cystic Fibrosis

   (7) Familial Mediterranean Fever

   (8) Glycogen Storage Disease Type 3

   (9) G6PD Deficiency

   (10) Hereditary Inclusion Body Myopathy

   (11) Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy Type 2B

   (12) Metachromatic Leukodystrophy

   (13) Normophosphatemic Familial Tumoral Calcinosis

   (14) Polyglandular Deficiency Syndrome

   (15) Pseudocholinesterase Deficiency

   (16) Spinal Muscular Atrophy Type 1A

   (17) Wolman's Disease



http://forward.com/culture/203321/all-about-genetic-diseases-that-strike-sephardic-j/



------------------


Genetic Diseases

Jewish

There are several genetic disease mutations that occur at increased frequencies in the Ashkenazi Jewish (Central & Eastern European), Sephardi Jewish (Southern European and Northern African), and Mizrahi Jewish (Middle Eastern/Arab) populations. The Mount Sinai Comprehensive Jewish Carrier Screening Panel covers 96 conditions that fall into this category. Some disorders are specific to one of the 3 sub-populations; however, there are certain diseases that are relevant to all Jewish sub-groups. Because these disorders are inherited in an autosomal recessive or X-linked manner, if you are of Jewish descent you may be at risk for being a carrier for a genetic disorder without even knowing it. Some of the most common diseases are listed below.
Abetalipoproteinemia
Alport Syndrome
Arthrogryposis Multiplex Congenita
Bardet-Biedl Syndrome
Bloom Syndrome
Canavan Disease
Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase II Deficiency
Congenital Amegakaryocytic Thrombocytopenia
Congenital Disorder of Glycosylation Ia
Dyskeratosis Congenita
Ehlers-Danlos VIIC
Familial Dysautonomia
Familial Hyperinsulinism
Fanconi Anemia
Galactosemia (also more frequent among people of Irish descent)
Gaucher Disease (Type I)
Glycogen Storage Disease Type 1a
Joubert Syndrome 2
Lipoamide Dehydrogenase Deficiency (E3)
Maple Syrup Urine Disease
Mucolipidosis Type IV
Nemaline Myopathy
Niemann-Pick Type A
3-Phospoglycerate Dehydrogenase Deficiency
Polycystic Kidney Disease
Retinitis Pigmentosa 59
Smith-Limli-Opitz Syndrome
Spinal Muscular Atrophy
Tay-Sachs Disease (also more frequent among French Canadians, Cajuns, and people of Irish/British descent)
Tyrosinemia I (also more frequent in Norwegians, Finnish, French Canadians)
Usher Syndrome (IF & III)
Walker-Warburg Syndrome
Wilson Disease
Zellweger Syndrome

http://www.geneticdiseasefoundation.org/genetic-diseases/

-----

The population genetics of the Jewish people

Oct 2012

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3543766/

----

Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease among Libyan Jews

Sep 1991

https://www.jstor.org/stable/3520745?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents

-------------------

Jewish Genetics: 75% of Jews Are Lactose Intolerant and 11 Other Facts

July 8, 2015

Almost half of Ashkenazim carry at least one of 38 genetic diseases, and our closest genetic relatives are Druze, Bedouin, Palestinians - and Italians.

Is there such a thing as a “Jewish gene”? No, there isn't.

http://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/science/.premium-1.664967


-----------------------


Genetic studies on Arabs

The Centre for Arab Genomic Studies (CAGS) oversees genetic analyses on the populations of the Arab world. Based in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, it indicates that Arab countries have among the highest rates of genetic disorders in the world. Some 906 pathologies are endemic to the Arab states, including thalassaemia, Tourette's syndrome, Wilson's disease, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, mitochondrial encephalomyopathies and Niemann-Pick disease.


Genetic diseases Databases in Arabic countries and studies

Several organizations maintain genetic databases for each Arabic country. The Centre for Arab Genomic Studies (CAGS) is the main organization based in the United Arab Emirates. It initiated a pilot project to construct the Catalogue for Transmission Genetics in Arabs (CTGA) database for genetic disorders in Arab populations. At present, the CTGA database is centrally maintained in Dubai, and hosts entries for nearly 1540 Mendelian disorders and related genes. This number is increasing as researchers are joining the largest Arab scientific effort to define genetic disorders described in the region. The Center promotes research studies on these emergent disorders. Some of the genetic disorders endemic to the Arab world are: hemoglobinopathy, sickle cell anemia, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, and fragile X syndrome (FXS), which is an inherited genetic condition with critical consequences. The Centre provide information about specific countries, and maintain a list of Genomic diseases.

Specific rare autosomal recessive diseases are high in Arabic countries like Bardet Biedl syndrome, Meckel syndrome, congenital chloride diarrhea, severe childhood autosomal recessive muscular dystrophy (SMARMD) Lysosomal storage diseases and PKU are high in the Gulf states. Dr Teebi's book provides detailed information and by country. Even the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) that was first identified in Saudi Arabia last year, it has infected 77 people, mostly in the Middle East and Europe. Forty of them - more than half - have died. But MERS is not yet a pandemic, could become pervasive in genetic disease patient.

Dr Thurman' guidebook about Rare genetic diseases  another book Arabic genetic disorders layman guide Suadi Journal article about genetic diseases in Arabic countries The highest proportion of genetic disorders manifestations are: congenital malformations followed by endocrine metabolic disorders and then by Neuron disorders (such as Neuromotor disease)and then by blood immune disorders and then neoplasms. The Mode of Inheritance is mainly autosomal recessive followed by autosomal dominant. Some of the diseases are beta-thalassemia mutations, sickle-cell disease, congenital heart-disease, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, alpha-thalassemia, molecular characterization, recessive osteoperosis, gluthanione-reducatsafe DEf. A study about sickle cell anemia in Arabs article about Birth defects  6Glucose Phisphate isomere deficiency responsible for unexpected hemolytic episodes. one of late Dr Teebi's syndromes. flash cards guide. NY times article In Palestinian Arabs study study about potential on pharmacology  another study on Arab Palestinians Database of Genetic disorders in Arabs study In Palestinians new general study about databases Database for B thalassemia in Arabs Israeli National genetic bank contains genetic mutations of Arabs Teebi database 2002  2010 genes responsible for genetic diseases among Palestinian Arabs The next Pan-Arab conference Nov 2013


 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetic_studies_on_Arabs


---------------


Genetic disease in the Arab world

 Oct, 2006


 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1618432/


-------------------


Sickle-cell Anemia and Consanguinity among the Saudi Arabian Population


June 15, 2016


Abstract

Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is one of the most common severe autosomal recessively inherited blood disorders. In Saudi Arabia, the prevalence of this disease is significantly varied in different regions of the country, and the highest prevalence in the Eastern province of the country. A consanguineous marriage has been linked to the high incidence and prevalence of Sickle Cell Anemia (SCA), which, accounts more than 50%, with the rate of marriage between first cousins ranging from 40% to 50%. However, the last few years showed no increase in the prevalence of sickle cell disease among Saudi’s. This might be related to the remarkable scientific progress in the understanding of the complex pathophysiology of the disease, improving knowledge regarding SCA among community, better medical care, and the efforts of Saudi’s government to provide genetic counselling services and implementing of mandatory premarital screening program. This review therefore is about the epidemiology, history of SCA among Saudi’s, clinical complications, and consanguinity marriage and SCA, with a focus on its local premarital screening program.



http://www.archivesofmedicine.com/medicine/sicklecell-anemia-and-consanguinity-among-the-saudi-arabian-population.php?aid=9701


----------------


Sickle Cell Anemia: It's Not a 'Black Disease'
How Sickle Cell is Acquired - Inheritance

As we've become more knowledgeable about sickle cell anemia we've discovered that it is not infectious but rather genetic. In other words you can't get sickle cell from exposure to a toxin, infection, virus, or parasite. People with sickle cell are born with the disease. It is inherited when parents pass it on to their children.
Location of Sickle Cell Carriers
Sickle Cell in the United States

We've also discovered that sickle cell is, in the United States, very prevalent among dark skinned people and almost completely absent in "white" populations. This is why sickle cell anemia has been, for a very long time, associated with people of dark skin color. This association has been based on the partially correct assumption that sickle cell originates in Africa and those who are of African descent (and therefore very often dark skinned) are the only people who can carry the gene for the disease and pass it on genetically.
Sickle Cell in the World

While it is true that sickle cell is very prevalent in much of Africa it is entirely untrue that it is confined just to that region. In fact sickle cell is prevalent in parts of all of the following areas:

    Africa
    Mediterranean countries (such as Greece, Turkey, and Italy)
    The Arabian peninsula
    India
    Spanish-speaking regions (South America, Central America, and parts of the Caribbean)

In each region both dark and light skinned people have been found to be sickle cell carriers. The explanation for this particular distribution lies in explanation for the survival of sickle cell over time.


 http://www.netwellness.org/healthtopics/sicklecell/sicklecellblackdisease.cfm


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The epidemiology of thyroid diseases in the Arab world: A systematic review


2015


 The  review  showed that the prevalence of different types of thyroid disease varied between the

reported studies in  Arab world ranging from 6.18 to 47.34% prevalence of goiter  reported  by

several studies conducted in Arab world, such as Egypt, Algeria and Bahrain with 25.25,  86  and  1.7%, respectively. Gender,  dietary  factors,  iodine  deficiency, family history, diabetes and x-ray radiation were reported as risk factors associated with different type of thyroid diseases.


The most prevalence of thyroid disease was concluded to be thyroid lesions which varied in different  regions of Arab and the burden of thyroid  cancer is very high and very common in different Arab region, and further longitudinal studies are still needed to investigate the prognosis and determinants of these thyroid diseases in the Arab world.


http://www.academicjournals.org/journal/JPHE/article-full-text-pdf/0C73CDC56758


[Eating Iodine can help fight thyroid cancer, seaweed has a lot of Iodine.]


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Centre for Arab Genomic Studies, Dubai, United Arab Emirates

GENETIC DISORDERS IN ARABS


Genetic  and  inherited  disorders  have  accompanied  humanity  since  its  earliest  existence.    Many  prehistoric and   historic   sites   have   revealed   archeological remains  with  pathologies  suggestive  of  inherited disorders. Paleopathology studies  -  the  identification of  pathological  conditions  in  ancient  skeletal  remains -  from  many  world  sites  revealed  the  presence  of

various  hereditary  or  congenital  conditions  including Paget’s  disease,  neurofibromatosis,  cleft  lip  and  cleft palate,  juvenile  kyphosis  (Scheuermann’s  disease), scoliosis, spina bifida, achondroplasia, Hurler syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis  type  I),  Hunter’s  syndrome,

(mucopolysaccharidosis  type  II),  Morquio’s  syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis type IV), osteogenesis imperfecta (types III and IV), cleidocranial dysostosis, osteopetrosis,

diaphyseal  sclerosis  (Camuratoi-Engelmann  disease), osteopoikilosis,  and  many  others  (reviewed  in Ortner, 2003).  One of the oldest of such records includes a 1.5

million year old fossil of a 2-year-old Homo erectus child with amelogenesis imperfecta (

Zilberman et al., 2004).  In  Indonesia,  the  skeleton  of  a  25-30  year-old  Homo

floresiensis, discovered in 2003 on the island of Flores, featured a small skull that could be due to microcephaly (Jacob et al., 2006).  In Egypt, scientific investigation of mummies  from  the  huge  necropolis  of Thebes-West  in Upper Egypt revealed osseous manifestations suggestive of metabolic and chronic anemia in high frequencies in populations of the “Middle Kingdom” (2050-1750 BCE;

Nerlich et al., 2002).  In addition, bizarre physical features were shared by many members of Egypt’s 18th Dynasty, including the Pharaoh Akhenaten, suggestive of possible familial  disorders  possibly  including  the  aromatase excess syndrome, the sagittal craniosynostosis syndrome, or a variant of the Antley-Bixler syndrome (Braverman et al., 2009).  Interestingly, ancient DNA analysis revealed

a b-thalassemia  mutation  in  the  skeletal  remains  of  an Ottoman child with severe porotic hyperostosis (Filon et al., 1995).


The Early Farmers


Around 12,000 years ago, Neolithic human populations adapted  agricultural  technologies  that  allowed  them to establish permanent  sizeable  settlements and to adapt  a  far-reaching shift  in  subsistence and lifestyle. Undoubtedly, improvement of the climatic conditions in the area along with the practice of agriculture helped in the establishment of major historical settlements with sizeable densities that could have contributed enormously to the genetic makeup of modern Arab populations.  Yet, farming was almost always associated with settlements near mosquito-infested soft and marshy soil causing large malarial outbreaks (Grmek, 1994; de Zulueta, 1994; Joy et al., 2003).  These outbreaks imposed selective pressure on the human genome and amplified the frequencies of

several  genetic  disorders  including  sickle  cell  disease, b-thalassemia,  and  glucose-6-phosphate  dehydrogenase (G6PD)  deficiency  (Angel,  1966 ;Carter  and  Mendis, 2002 Kwiatkowski, 2005).


http://www.cags.org.ae/cb404c1.pdf



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Lifestyle disorders top health issues in Arab world

 January 2014


PARIS: Heart disease and stroke have replaced infectious disease as the top causes of early death in the Arab world, tracking the West in a trend toward lifestyle disorders, The Lancet reported Monday.

An international consortium of scientists compared the state of health in the 22 countries of the Arab League in 1990 and in 2010, using data from a vast study — the 2010 Global Burden of Diseases report.

In 1990, respiratory infection headed the list of concerns, accounting for 11 percent of deaths, while stillbirths and poor nutrition also featured high on the mortality list.

These problems still persist in the low-income countries of the Comoros, Djibouti, Mauritania, Somalia and Yemen, the investigators found.


 http://www.arabnews.com/news/515126


----------------



Arab countries living longer but battling chronic disease

In the region as a whole, important changes occurred over those two decades. Burden attributable to non-communicable disease, including ischemic heart disease, mental disorders such as depression and anxiety, and musculoskeletal disorders increased, while the premature death and disability from most newborn, nutritional, and maternal disorders decreased. Basically, there were tremendous improvements in what is killing people but not in what is ailing them.

Of the 10 leading causes of health loss, combining both premature mortality and years lived with disability, between 1990 and 2010, lower respiratory infections remained the first, while ischemic heart disease rose to second. Major depressive disorder rose from eighth to fifth place, and low back pain, which was not among the top causes of health loss in 1990, was ranked seventh in 2010. The rise of non-communicable disease in the Arab world mirrors similar changes in the US, Western Europe, and Canada.


http://www.healthdata.org/news-release/arab-countries-living-longer-battling-chronic-disease


-----------------------


Frequently asked questions on Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV)

 May, 2017


1. What is Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)?

Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is a viral respiratory illness caused by a coronavirus (Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, or MERS-CoV) that was first identified in Saudi Arabia in 2012. Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that can cause diseases in humans, ranging from the common cold to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS).



http://www.who.int/csr/disease/coronavirus_infections/faq/en/


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Population structure and the burden of disease in the United Arab Emirates

 2012

 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2210600612000214

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Saudi Arabia Awakes to the Perils of Inbreeding

 MAY 1, 2003


Health officials and genetic researchers here say there is no way to stop inbreeding in this deeply conservative Muslim society, where marrying within the family is a tradition that goes back hundreds of years.

Today, when most unions are still arranged by parents, marrying into wealth and influence often means marrying a relative. Social lives are so restricted that it is virtually impossible for men and women to meet one another outside the umbrella of an extended family. Courtships without parental supervision are rare.

Among more educated Saudis, marrying relatives has become less common and younger generations have begun to pull away from the practice. But for the vast majority, the tradition is still deeply embedded in Saudi culture.


http://www.nytimes.com/2003/05/01/world/saudi-arabia-awakes-to-the-perils-of-inbreeding.html



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 Hemoglobinopathies in the United Arab Emirates


       Genetic Disorders in the UAE Autosomal recessive disorders are common in the UAE.   

        Hemoglobinopathies are one of the most common disorders among the UAE nationals. Other

   diseases include congenital abnormalities, cancers, metabolic disorders, chromosomal aberrations and mental retardation. Monogenic diseases such as cystic fibrosis, fragile-X and G6PD also exist at appreciable levels.  During the last  two years  alone, the author's laboratory has carried out  mutational  identification and  characterization  of  more  than  50  cases  of  cystic

Fibrosis, predominantly among the UAE nationals.


ß-Thalassemia


ß-Thalassemia  (ß-thal)  is  one  of  the  most  common single gene disorders affecting almost all the countries in  the  Mediterranean  Basin, the  Middle East,  SouthbEast  Asia,  Far  East,  Australasia,  the  Americas  and Africa.  It is characterized by the deficiency or absence of ß-globin chain production.  More than 200 different mutations  have  so  far  been  reported  that  result  in

ß- thalassemia.


    a-Thalassemia and HbH Disease

a-Thalassemia (a-thal) is generally caused by the deletion of one (-a/

a   a) or both (-a/-a or --/a) func-tional a-globin genes leading to a-thal-2

     (-a/a) and a-thal-1 (--/a) conditions, respectively. Individuals who inherit two or three functional a-genes (-a/a; -a-a; --/) have a-thal trait with a mild hypochromic, microcytic anemia. Those who inherit a single a-gene (--/-a) have HbH (ß4) disease, a moderately severe hemolytic anemia with a variable clinical course. HbH Disease is the most severe form of the a-thal syndromes compatible with life. Hb Bart's Hydrops Fetalis syndromes arise from total absence of four a-globin genes (--/--) and such condition is incompatible with life. The majority of a-thal and HbH cases in the Gulf Region are caused by point mutations characterized by relatively severe phenotype.

HbH disease is a moderately severe hemolytic anemia with microcytosis, hypochromia, low HbA and HbF levels, and varying quantities of HbH (ß4; 2-30%).

Most of the HbH syndromes were thought to be caused by the deletion or inactivation of three of the four a-globin genes. However, in the last decade, numerous reports have been published demonstrating an increasing number of non-deletional (aT)a-thal as

the molecular basis for many of the HbH syndromes, particularly from the Middle East.

For decades, hematological evaluation and gene mapping techniques have been used to

identify these anomalies at the molecular level. More recently, novel techniques such as PCR have been devised which enable the molecular characterization of such patients rapidly, easily and accurately.

Several studies were conducted in the author's laboratory in an attempt to elucidate the frequency of a-thal in the UAE. Cord blood samples were collected from 418 consecutive UAE national newborns. The PCR-based analysis of the a

-globin gene status demonstrated that the incidence of a-thal, particularly the -a3.7 deletion, was extremely high.


The DNA-based newborn screening survey demonstrated that 49  %  of  the  neonates  had 
α-thal, one  of  the  highest  in  the  world.  The  distribution of mutations was as follows: 
αα/αα:  51%;  -α3.7/αα:34%; -α3.7/-α3.7: 11%; -
α4.2/αα: 1.0% and one newborn was  compound  heterozygous  for  the  -α3.7/-α4.2geno-
type.  The  remaining  3%  of  the  chromosomes  were
identified with the non-deletional type of αthal (αT). Four  different  αT alleles  were  identified;  PolyA-1[αPA-1(AATAAA→AATAAG)],      PolyA-2      [αPA-2(AATAAA→AATGAA)], Hb Constant Spring [HbCS(αCSα/αCSα) TAA→CAA]  and  pentanucleotide  deletion [α-5nt del(GAGGTGAGG→GAGG)]


https://www.dha.gov.ae/en/SpecialtyCentres/GeneticsCenter/Documents/Hemoglobinopathies%20in%20the%20UAE%20By%20Dr.%20E.%20Baysal.pdf


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In Middle East and North Africa, Health Challenges are Becoming Similar to Those in Western Countries

 September 4, 2013


WASHINGTON, September 4, 2013 - In the Middle East and North Africa region, non-communicable diseases such as heart disease (up by 44%), stroke (up 35%), and diabetes (up 87%) are causing more premature death and disability than they did in the past. Potentially preventable risk factors such as poor diets, high blood pressure, high body mass index (an indicator of obesity and overweight), and smoking are contributing to the growing burden of non-communicable diseases in the region.


 http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-release/2013/09/04/middle-east-north-Africa-health-challenges-similar-western-countries


---------------------

Cardiovascular diseases on the increase in Arab states

March 2012


Children in the Arab Gulf region are more at risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (CVD) than those in other Arab states, according to a new report from the World Heart Federation.

The rapid urbanisation of Arab Gulf states means children are increasingly living in densely populated cities and suffering exposure to air and water pollution. Many are being denied access to green spaces and their health is further compromised by passive smoking and fast food.

Kuwait is the most urbanised Arab state, with 98% of its population living in cities, followed closely by Qatar with 96%. Neighbouring Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) come next, with 84% and 78% of people living in cities respectively.


 http://www.natureasia.com/en/nmiddleeast/article/10.1038/nmiddleeast.2012.36


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About the Epidemiology of IBD

June, 2012


Epidemiology is the study of the frequency and distribution of diseases in the population.

It is estimated that 1.4 million Americans suffer from Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis (collectively known as inflammatory bowel diseases, or IBD). The search for risk factors in IBD has been frustrating, and the difficulty in diagnosing these diseases has been a further hindrance. However, epidemiologists have gathered enough information to know a good deal about the distribution of IBD in the United States and Western Europe. Current evidence suggests that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to these diseases.
Genetics

In 2001, Nod2, the first gene linked to Crohn's disease, was discovered. This breakthrough was funded in part by a CCFA research grant. Most researchers agree that there is a strong genetic component in IBD. If a person has a relative with the disease, his/her risk is estimated to be at least 10 times that of the general population -- 30 times greater if the relative is a sibling. New technologies, including a genome-wide search, are helping researchers to close in on the genes that predispose people to IBD.
Race and Ethnicity

    American Jews of European descent are four to five times more likely to develop IBD than the general population.
    IBD has long been considered a predominantly white disease. The prevalence rate among whites is 149 per 100,000. Among African Americans, however, there has been a steady increase in reported cases of both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. An HMO with two million members reported hospitalization rates per 100,000 by race, over a six-year period, as:
        10.2 - Whites
        10.2 - African Americans

According to this study, prevalence rates among Hispanics and Asians were lower than those for whites and African Americans.


http://www.crohnscolitisfoundation.org/resources/epidemiology.html


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Prevalence and Risk Factors of Postpartum Depression in Middle Eastern/Arab Women

 Postpartum Depression (PPD) affects women around the world and it is estimated that its prevalence runs at about 10-15% (Fuggle, Glover, Khan & Haydon, 2002). Some studies show that PPD may affect up to 30% of all women after delivery (Evins, Theofrastous & Galvin, 2000; WHO, 2003), and has a significant impact on the mother and long-term consequences on the cognitive and emotional development of children (Tammentie, Tarka, Astedt-Kurki & Paavilainen, 2002). It is generally also agreed that while this illness can turn into major depression and carries substantial risk of morbidity and death, it is an underdiagnosed and underrated illness. Mathers & Loncar (2006) project that by the year 2030, depression will be one of the top three leading causes of death in the world; yet PPD is one of the least addressed types of depression today. Additionally, for women who have experienced PPD, up to 50% will face a reoccurrence during subsequent pregnancies (Nonacs and Cohen, 2000).\


http://quod.lib.umich.edu/j/jmmh/10381607.0009.104/--prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-postpartum-depression?rgn=main;view=fulltext


-----------

Indian genetic disease database

 Indians, representing about one-sixth of the world population, consist of several thousands of endogamous groups with strong potential for excess of recessive diseases. However, no database is available on Indian population with comprehensive information on the diseases common in the country. To address this issue, we present Indian Genetic Disease Database (IGDD) release 1.0 (http://www.igdd.iicb.res.in)—an integrated and curated repository of growing number of mutation data on common genetic diseases afflicting the Indian populations. Currently the database covers 52 diseases with information on 5760 individuals carrying the mutant alleles of causal genes. Information on locus heterogeneity, type of mutation, clinical and biochemical data, geographical location and common mutations are furnished based on published literature. The database is currently designed to work best with Internet Explorer 8 (optimal resolution 1440?×?900) and it can be searched based on disease of interest, causal gene, type of mutation and geographical location of the patients or carriers. Provisions have been made for deposition of new data and logistics for regular updation of the database. The IGDD web portal, planned to be made freely available, contains user-friendly interfaces and is expected to be highly useful to the geneticists, clinicians, biologists and patient support groups of various genetic diseases.



 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3013653/



----------

Prevalence of common disease-associated variants in Asian Indians

2008

    Trevor J Pemberton,
    Niyati U Mehta,
    David Witonsky,
    Anna Di Rienzo,
    Hooman Allayee,
    David V Conti and
    Pragna I PatelEmail author

BMC Genetics20089:13

DOI: 10.1186/1471-2156-9-13

©  Pemberton et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2008
Background

Asian Indians display a high prevalence of diseases linked to changes in diet and environment that have arisen as their lifestyle has become more westernized. Using 1200 genome-wide polymorphisms in 432 individuals from 15 Indian language groups, we have recently shown that: (i) Indians constitute a distinct population-genetic cluster, and (ii) despite the geographic and linguistic diversity of the groups they exhibit a relatively low level of genetic heterogeneity.


Results

We investigated the prevalence of common polymorphisms that have been associated with diseases, such as atherosclerosis (ALOX5), hypertension (CYP3A5, AGT, GNB3), diabetes (CAPN10, TCF7L2, PTPN22), prostate cancer (DG8S737, rs1447295), Hirschsprung disease (RET), and age-related macular degeneration (CFH, LOC387715). In addition, we examined polymorphisms associated with skin pigmentation (SLC24A5) and with the ability to taste phenylthiocarbamide (TAS2R38). All polymorphisms were studied in a cohort of 576 India-born Asian Indians sampled in the United States. This sample consisted of individuals whose mother tongue is one of 14 of the 22 "official" languages recognized in India as well as individuals whose mother tongue is Parsi, a cultural group that has resided in India for over 1000 years. Analysis of the data revealed that allele frequency differences between the different Indian language groups were small, and interestingly the variant alleles of ALOX5 g.8322G>A and g.50778G>A, and PTPN22 g.36677C>T were present only in a subset of the Indian language groups. Furthermore, a latitudinal cline was identified both for the allele frequencies of the SNPs associated with hypertension (CYP3A5, AGT, GNB3), as well as for those associated with the ability to taste phenylthiocarbamide (TAS2R38).
Conclusion

Although caution is warranted due to the fact that this US-sampled Indian cohort may not represent a random sample from India, our results will hopefully assist in the design of future studies that investigate the genetic causes of these diseases in India. Our results also support the inclusion of the Indian population in disease-related genetic studies, as it exhibits unique genotype as well as phenotype characteristics that may yield new insights into the underlying causes of common diseases that are not available in other populations.


https://bmcgenet.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2156-9-13




---------


Diet, Genetics, and Disease: A Focus on the Middle East and North Africa Region


 2012


https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnme/2012/109037/



----------


An Overview of Human Genetic Disorders with Special Reference to African Americans

 October 27, 2015


 Diabetes

 Hypertension

 Pancreatic Cancer

 Prostate Cancer

 Alzheimer’s Disease

 Sickle Cell Disease

 Kidney Disease

 Inflammatory Bowel Disease

 AIDS

 Sarcoidosis

[Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency]

[Beta-thalassemia]




 https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/an-overview-of-human-genetic-disorders-with-special-reference-to-africanamericans-2155-9821-1000e139.php?aid=63273



-----------


Genetic disorders in Southern Africa.


Abstract

Certain uncommon genetic disorders occur relatively frequently in the various population groups of Southern Africa. Prominent among these are porphyria, colonic polyposis and sclerosteosis in the Afrikaner community, Huntington's chorea in the British, Gaucher's and Tay-Sachs diseases in the Jewish population, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G-6-PD deficiency) and thalassaemia in the Greek community, various skeletal dysplasias in the Black group, lipoid proteinosis and cleidocranial dysostosis in the Cape Coloured population, diabetes mellitus in the Indian community and retinitis pigmentosa in the Tristan da Cunha islanders. In addition, 'private' syndromes have been encountered in virtually every group. Awareness of the ethnic distribution of unusual genetic conditions is of considerable practical importance during the differential diagnosis of obscure disease.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/959924



---------------------------------------------


GENETIC ANALYSIS OF AFRICAN

POPULATIONS: HUMAN EVOLUTION

AND COMPLEX DISEASE


http://bioinformatics.bc.edu/~marth/BI820-2004S/files/Tishkoff-AfricanPop-NRG-2002.pdf



---------------------------------------------------

Moroccan Genetic Disease Database

Database content

Disease325
Gene389
Mutation532
Polymorphism305
Article399

http://mgdd.pasteur.ma/

--------------------------------

Genetics and genomic medicine in Morocco: the present hope can
make the future bright

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/mgg3.255/pdf

-------------------------

Consanguinity and genetic disorders in Egypt

Jan 2012

http://journals.lww.com/mejmedgen/Fulltext/2012/01000/Consanguinity_and_genetic_disorders_in_Egypt.3.aspx

------------------------

Profile of genetic disorders prevalent in northeast region of Cairo, Egypt

February 2012

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1110863011000620

---------------------------

The genetic affinities of Ethiopians

January 10, 2011

http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/gnxp/2011/01/the-genetic-affinities-of-ethiopians/#.WXDzxullDIU

-------------------------


Hereditary neurodegenerative disorders in Nigerian Africans.

1984

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6230542

--------------------


Oldest genetic disorder few Kenyans know about

April 16th 2017

 https://www.standardmedia.co.ke/health/article/2001236551/oldest-genetic-disorder-few-kenyans-know-about


--------------------

Congo’s Uncharted Territory

Aug 19, 2013

http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/bodyhorrors/2013/08/19/congos-neglected-tropical-diseases/#.WXDxSOllDIU

--------------------

Genetic Disorders in Sudan

April 2010

https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-05080-0_20/fulltext.html

---------------------


Blacks More Prone to Colon Cancers That Arise Between Colonoscopies: Study

May 22, 2017


A new study finds that older black Americans are far more likely than whites to develop a colon cancer in the decade-long gap between these screenings.

Some of this may be due to where black patients receive their colonoscopy, the researchers said.

"Blacks and other minorities more frequently received colonoscopies from physicians with lower [colon] polyp detection rates, suggesting there was lower quality of care," said study lead author Stacey Fedewa, a researcher with the American Cancer Society.


http://health.usnews.com/health-care/articles/2017-05-22/blacks-more-prone-to-colon-cancers-that-arise-between-colonoscopies-study


------------

African Americans at Increased Risk for Eye Diseases

Cataracts

Cataracts are a clouding of the lens of the eye. African Americans are 1.5 times more likely to develop cataracts than the general population and five times more likely to develop related blindness.
Glaucoma
Glaucoma refers to a family of diseases that affect the optic nerve and cause vision loss. African Americans are five times more likely than whites to develop glaucoma and four times more likely to develop related blindness.
Diabetes
African American adults are twice as likely as non-Hispanic whites to be diagnosed with diabetes and twice as likely to develop and die from diabetes-related complications. Diabetes can cause diabetic retinopathy, a condition that can lead to retinal damage and permanent vision loss.
Hypertension
Even though hypertension may not seem to be related to the eyes, high blood pressure can cause vision problems and vision loss. African American adults are more likely to be diagnosed with hypertension but less likely to have the condition under control (Source: Vision Problems).
Black History Month is truly a time to celebrate, so what better way to celebrate than to schedule a comprehensive eye exam? An eye exam does much more than evaluate the clarity of your vision; it can serve as a window into your overall health. Celebrate good health this February by getting a thorough vision screening!

http://yoursightmatters.com/african-americr-eye-diseases/


--------------------


Glaucoma in the African American and Hispanic Communities

Yvonne Ou, MD

University of California, San Francisco, UCSF Medical Center

Thursday, January 1, 2015

African Americans and Hispanics are at increased risk of developing glaucoma. Find out why and learn about important steps that can prevent vision loss from this eye disease. 


http://www.brightfocus.org/glaucoma/article/glaucoma-african-american-and-hispanic-communities


--------



Blacks Seem More Vulnerable to Deadly Blood Infection

By Jenifer Goodwin

HealthDay Reporter


TUESDAY, June 22 (HealthDay News) -- Black patients are more likely to develop the life-threatening blood infection sepsis and have a greater chance of dying from it than whites, new research suggests.


http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=117445


-----------


High Blood Pressure in African-Americans

High blood pressure, also known as hypertension, affects African-Americans in unique ways:

    African-Americans develop high blood pressure at younger ages than other groups in the U.S.
    African-Americans are more likely to develop complications associated with high blood pressure. These problems include stroke, kidney disease, blindness, dementia, and heart disease.

http://www.webmd.com/hypertension-high-blood-pressure/guide/hypertension-in-african-americans#1


------------


Blacks still dying more from cancer than whites

 February 18, 2009


Three years ago, the American Cancer Society (ACS) broke some exciting news: for the first time in decades, U.S. cancer deaths fell. The trend continued the following year. But new research today shows that the milestone has been a mixed bag for one segment of the population, African-Americans. They’re also dying less of cancer—in some cases, their gains are coming at a faster pace than for whites—but the disease still kills them more often.


https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/news-blog/blacks-still-dying-more-of-cancer-t-2009-02-18/


------------


Prostate cancer risk in African Americans


African Americans are more likely to develop — and die from — prostate cancer than others. But why?

This year, the American Cancer Society estimates that nearly 1.5 million Americans will be diagnosed with some form of cancer — and that figure doesn’t even include more than 1 million cases of certain skin cancers. The organization estimates that cancer will also claim 562,340 lives in 2009. Scientific evidence shows that about one-third of those deaths could have been prevented by making lifestyle changes. Smoking, being overweight or obese, not exercising, and eating a poor diet — all modifiable risk factors — have been linked to cancer (as well as heart disease, diabetes, and many other conditions).


http://www.harvardprostateknowledge.org/prostate-cancer-risk-in-african-americans


------------


 Racial Differences in Reported Lyme Disease Incidence

2000

In the United States, the incidence of Lyme disease is considered to be disproportionately high among Whites because of risk of exposure. For assessment of racial differences in Lyme disease incidence and the role of risk

exposure, incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for Lyme disease and its manifestations between Whites and African Americans in Maryland and in its focus of endemicity, the Upper Eastern Shore, were calculated. Calculations were based on reported cases of Lyme disease in Maryland during the years 1992–1996. The IRR for Lyme disease between Whites and African Americans was 6.3 (95% confidence interval (CI): 5.0, 8.0), decreasing to 1.8 (95% CI: 1.2, 2.7) for the Upper Eastern Shore. Statewide, there was a significant difference between the White to African American IRR for erythema migrans and for Lyme disease-associated arthritis, at 17.7 (95% CI: 11.2, 27.8) and 2.3 (95% CI: 1.7, 3.2), respectively. On the Upper Eastern Shore, the IRR for arthritis

reversed, indicating higher incidence among African Americans than among Whites: IRR = 5.7 (95% CI: 2.4,13.9) for erythema migrans and IRR = 0.7 (95% CI: 0.4, 1.1) for arthritis. White patients were more likely to have erythema migrans (risk ratio = 2.8, 95% CI: 1.9, 4.1) and less likely to have arthritis than were African Americans(risk ratio = 0.4, 95% CI: 0.3, 0.5). Among all patients, there was a significant negative association between arthritis and erythema migrans. Although much of the racial disparity in incidence rates diminishes in a rural, endemic area, consistent with exposure risk being responsible for much of the variation, a difference remains.

This may be due to failure to recognize early disease (erythema migrans) among African Americans, resulting in increased rates of late manifestations. Geographic spread of the disease warrants efforts to increase awareness of Lyme disease and its manifestations among people of color and the health care providers who serve them.

 https://oup.silverchair-cdn.com/oup/backfile/Content_public/Journal/aje/152/8/10.1093/aje/152.8.756/2/756.pdf?Expires=1500258112&Signature=F1DoMlshZnNEHWu~2fUwXIR1oKQq4~R2DNIiCIc5GXfui4gPyBRd0~98cDAx74Sda~2DqPTtQAOshONXI1fZHWYUIWMj8LbDZkFeFupFdQfZ-ceP-Akto8-CrB4Uq7B-4wd1qDq0zKQrhks0vKDFJGd3Cvxe7ySA-b2L1zzRdiRDEEQJwYOpl5Wvuf9MIsQ5BSzzlQPA~woJXRfkZJ3p0Cno1o4erPBQiAOs4ngIKLYjafnTnVIhPnve2YvMt54lXG7kWfKLDioAhxZMxup9fCo5dPj5Fa8gXi-iCnvusIW62cb9ytVGhBwicoNIKETVwz9wEhkKZUYo7bOKZ~0YGQ__&Key-Pair-Id=APKAIUCZBIA4LVPAVW3Q


------


Alzheimer's Affects Races Differently: Researchers

Thursday, 16 Jul 2015


Alzheimer's disease seems to develop differently in the brains of black patients than in whites.

And, black people seem more likely to suffer different types of brain changes that also contribute to dementia, a new study reports.

Alzheimer's disease dementia is generally associated with a build-up of substances known as plaques and tangles inside the brain.

But, there are other brain changes that can also contribute to dementia, the study authors noted.

For example, the brains of people with dementia sometimes contain infarcts -- tiny areas of dead tissue caused by micro-strokes, the researchers explained.

They also might contain Lewy bodies -- another form of abnormal protein build-up in the brain that's usually associated with Parkinson's disease.

Autopsies of black and white Alzheimer's patients revealed that blacks were more likely than whites to experience a mix of dementia-related changes, as opposed to the damage usually associated with "pure" Alzheimer's dementia, according to the study.

"We were surprised that the African Americans were much more likely to have a mixed picture," said lead author Lisa Barnes, a professor of neurology and behavioral science at Rush University Medical Center in Chicago. "The underlying brain changes were different, which indicates that they probably had different risk factors."

The study findings were published online July 15 in advance of print publication in the journal Neurology.

http://www.newsmax.com/Health/Health-News/alzheimers-dementia-races-blacks/2015/07/16/id/657369/


----------



How Alzheimer’s Is Different in African-Americans

Jul 15, 2015

 The hallmark signs of Alzheimer’s are well-established—plaques of amyloid protein and tangles of tau protein in the brain, which work to suffocate and eventually destroy neurons that are dedicated to higher level functions such as memory and reasoning.But in a study published in the journal Neurology, researchers show that there may be important differences in the way Alzheimer’s appears in the brains of African-American and white patients. When Lisa Barnes, a neurologist at the Rush Alzheimer’s Disease Center at Rush University Medical Center and her colleagues compared the brains of 41 black patients who had died of the disease to the brains of 81 white patients, they found a much more complex picture of Alzheimer's in the brains of the African-Americans.


These patients were more likely to have not just the familiar plaques and tangles, but also other signs of neurological abnormalities, including Lewy bodies, signs of infarcts and blood vessel disease. In fact, 71% of the African-American patients showed this mixed picture compared to 50% of the white patients.


The most common—and surprising, says Barnes—connection involved the Lewy bodies. These are clumps of proteins that aggregate inside nerve cells, particularly those involved in movement. They are common in Parkinson’s patients and can contribute to tremors as well as hallucinations and sleep disruptions. Because the black population is known to have higher risk of circulatory disorders, including stroke and hypertension, Barnes expected to find more infarct-related differences when comparing the brains of African-Americans to those of whites. “We did not find that,” she says. “We found a much more mixed picture than just infarcts, and that was a little bit surprising.”


http://time.com/3959295/alzheimers-african-americans/


---------


UNC study: Frequency of foot disorders differs between African Americans and whites

Monday, November 8, 2010 — African Americans in the study age 45 or older were three times more likely than whites of the same age to have corns or flat feet. In people who were not obese, African Americans were twice as likely to have bunions and hammer toes than whites.


http://www.med.unc.edu/www/newsarchive/2010/november/unc-study-frequency-of-foot-disorders-differs-between-african-americans-and-whites


------


Asthma in African Americans: What can we do about the higher rates of disease? 

March, 2012

To remedy disparities such as greater disease severity and higher rates of hospitalization and death, we need to ensure that all patients receive proper care and the knowledge they need to control their asthma.

 ABSTRACT

African Americans not only have a higher prevalence of asthma than whites, they also are encumbered with higher rates of asthma-associated morbidity and death. Factors such as genetics, socioeconomic status, health maintenance behaviors, air quality, and obesity likely contribute in combination to these burdens. Further work is needed to better understand these complex risk factors. To remedy these disparities, we need to ensure that patients at higher risk are given proper care and the knowledge to control their asthma.


http://www.mdedge.com/ccjm/article/95718/pulmonology/asthma-african-americans-what-can-we-do-about-higher-rates-disease


----------


Genetics key to African-Americans' hypertension

Stanford Report, January 26, 2005

National health records have shown that African-Americans are more prone to high blood pressure than Caucasians, but pinning down the roots of that difference has proven elusive. Now, researchers at the School of Medicine have narrowed down the search for genes that contribute to this difference in disease risk.

Finding such a gene could have several benefits for African-Americans and other ethnic groups. One is that by knowing the normal role of the gene, doctors can better understand the disease and devise new drugs or treatments to keep blood pressure under control. It could also lead to genetic tests to help identify people at higher risk of heart disease.


http://news.stanford.edu/news/2005/january26/med-hypertension-012605.html


-----------------------



Metabolic Syndrome in African Americans: Implications for Preventing Coronary Heart Disease

2007


        Summary:

The metabolic syndrome represents a specific

clustering of cardiovascular risk factors in the same individu-

al (abdominal obesity, atherogenic dyslipidemia, elevated

blood pressure, insulin resistance, a prothrombotic state, and

a proinflammatory state). Almost 50 million American adults

(about one in four) have the metabolic syndrome, which puts

them at increased risk for the development of diabetes melli-

tus and cardiovascular disease. African Americans, especial-

ly African-American women, have a high prevalence of the

metabolic syndrome. This is attributable mainly to the dis-

proportionate occurrence in African Americans of elevated

blood pressure, obesity, and diabetes. Management of the

metabolic syndrome consists primarily of modification or re-

versal of the root causes (overweight/obesity and physical in-

activity) and therapy to reduce or control the risk factors.

Although all components of the metabolic syndrome should

be addressed, optimal control of atherogenic dyslipidemia

and elevated blood pressure may reduce cardiovascular risk

by more than 80%.


http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/clc.20003/pdf


-----------------


Food Allergies Among Kids Vary by Race: Study

Researchers find blacks and Hispanics more likely to be allergic to corn and shellfish, for instance.


TUESDAY, Nov. 22, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Black and Hispanic children are much more likely to have corn, shellfish and fish allergies than white children, according to a U.S. study.
The study also found that compared to whites, black children have much higher rates of asthma, eczema and allergies to wheat and soy.


https://consumer.healthday.com/respiratory-and-allergy-information-2/food-allergy-news-16/food-allergies-among-kids-vary-by-race-study-717085.html


--------------------------


Why Black Children May Be More Likely to Develop Food Allergies

 Sept. 05, 2011


New research suggests that race and ancestry may play an important role in food allergies.

Dr. Rajesh Kumar, a pediatrician at Northwestern University Medical School, and his team report in the journal Pediatrics that black children are more than twice as likely as white children to have sensitivities to eight foods that commonly cause allergic reactions, and that they are especially vulnerable to peanut allergies.

While other studies have linked African American ethnicity to a higher risk of asthma, Kumar’s group was interested in investigating whether race also affects children’s risk of allergy to certain foods. Using a multi-ethnic database of 1,104 children who participated in regular health checkups at 6 months, then again at 1, 2, 4 and 6 years old, the scientists measured the youngsters’ antibodies to egg white, cow’s milk, peanut, soy, shrimp, walnut, wheat and cod.


http://healthland.time.com/2011/09/05/why-black-children-might-be-more-likely-to-develop-food-allergies/


------------

Are People of Certain Races and Ethnicities More Susceptible to Food Allergies

 Nov, 2015


https://www.premierallergyohio.com/doctors-blog/are-people-of-certain-races-and-ethnicities-more-susceptible-to-food-allergies


-----------


Racial Differences in Allergic Sensitization: Recent Findings and Future Directions

 June, 2013


 Racial disparities are present in many facets of health and disease. Allergy and asthma are no exceptions. Secondary results from cross-sectional and cohort studies have provided information on the scope of racial disparities in allergic sensitization in the United States. African American/Black individuals tend to be sensitized more frequently than White individuals. Little is known about rates in other race groups. Genetics are unlikely to be the sole or major cause of the observed differences. Home dust allergen and endotoxin levels cannot explain the differences. Studies that have been designed to specifically address the sources of these racial disparities are needed. A “Multilevel Framework” that considers the roles of the individual, family and community presents an excellent approach to guide design of future studies of the causes of these disparities. Understanding the causes of the disparities could lead to interventions that would improve the health of all individuals.


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4888051/


-------

Ethnic differences in coronary atherosclerosis

February 2002


Conclusions

As compared with whites, blacks and Hispanics had significantly lower prevalence of CAC and obstructive coronary disease. Ethnic differences in risk-factor profiles do not explain these differences. This study demonstrated that whites have a higher atherosclerotic burden than blacks and Hispanics, independent of risk-factor differences among symptomatic patients referred for angiography.


http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S073510970101748X


--------------


Why Are African-Americans at Greater Risk for Heart Disease?

African-Americans are at higher risk for heart disease, yet they're less likely to get the care they need.

African-Americans and Heart Failure

In a startling 2009 study published in the New England Journal of Medicine, researchers found that African-Americans have a much higher incidence of heart failure than other races, and it develops at younger ages. Heart failure means that the heart isn't able to pump blood as well as it should.

Before age 50, African-Americans' heart failure rate is 20 times higher than that of whites, according to the study. Four risk factors are the strongest predictors of heart failure: high blood pressure (also called hypertension), chronic kidney disease, being overweight, and having low levels of HDL, the "good" cholesterol. Three-fourths of African-Americans who develop heart failure have high blood pressure by age 40.


 http://www.webmd.com/heart-disease/features/why-african-americans-greater-risk-heart-disease#1


--------------

Black Women Have Worse Breast Cancer Survival Rates Compared to Whites and Hispanics


http://www.breastcancer.org/research-news/black-women-have-worse-survival-rates


----------------


Race, Ancestry, and Development of Food-Allergen Sensitization in Early Childhood

2011 Oct

RESULTS:

In this predominantly minority cohort (60.9% black and 22.5% Hispanic), 35.5% of subjects exhibited food sensitizations. In multivariate models, both self-reported black race (odds ratio [OR]: 2.34 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.24–4.44]) and African ancestry (in 10% increments; OR: 1.07 [95% CI: 1.02–1.14]) were associated with food sensitization. Self-reported black race (OR: 3.76 [95% CI: 1.09–12.97]) and African ancestry (OR: 1.19 [95% CI: 1.07–1.32]) were associated with a high number (=3) of food sensitizations. African ancestry was associated with increased odds of peanut sIgE levels of =5 kUA/L (OR: 1.25 [95% CI: 1.01–1.52]). Similar ancestry associations were seen for egg sIgE levels of =2 kUA/L (OR: 1.13 [95% CI: 1.01–1.27]) and milk sIgE levels of =5 kUA/L (OR: 1.24 [95% CI: 0.94–1.63]), although findings were not significant for milk.

CONCLUSIONS:

Black children were more likely to be sensitized to food allergens and were sensitized to more foods. African ancestry was associated with peanut sensitization.


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3182844/


------------------------------------------



 1.What Is Sarcoidosis?


Sarcoidosis involves inflammation that produces tiny lumps of cells in various organs in

your body. The lumps are called granulomas because they look like grains of sugar or sand.

They are very small and can be seen only with a microscope. These tiny granulomas can grow and

clump together, making many large and small groups of lumps. If many granulomas form in

an organ, they can affect how the organ works


          Who Gets It?

Sarcoidosis affects people of all ages and races worldwide.

It occurs mostly in:

Adults between the ages of 20 and 40

African Americans (especially women)


http://www.nyc.gov/html/doh/wtc/downloads/pdf/wtc/SarcoidosisFS.pdf


 -----------------------------------



Coccidioidomycosis in African Americans

 Jan, 2011


 Coccidioidomycosis is caused by Coccidioides species, a fungus endemic to the desert regions of the southwestern United States, and is of particular concern for African Americans. We performed a PubMed search of the English-language medical literature on coccidioidomycosis in African Americans and summarized the pertinent literature. Search terms were coccidioidomycosis, Coccidioides, race, ethnicity, African, black, and Negro. The proceedings of the national and international coccidioidomycosis symposia were searched. All relevant articles and their cited references were reviewed; those with epidemiological, immunologic, clinical, and therapeutic data pertaining to coccidioidomycosis in African Americans were included in the review. Numerous studies documented an increased predilection for severe coccidioidal infections, coccidioidomycosis-related hospitalizations, and extrapulmonary dissemination in persons of African descent; however, most of the published studies are variably problematic. The immunologic mechanism for this predilection is unclear. The clinical features and treatment recommendations are summarized. Medical practitioners need to be alert to the possibility of coccidioidomycosis in persons with recent travel to or residence in an area where the disease is endemic.


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3012635/


---------------------

5 Diseases More Common in Minorities

Oct 13, 2011

Although more and more people are living longer with colorectal cancer, new research has found that black people with the disease aren't living as long as whites.

In an analysis of more than 14,000 patients with stage 2 and 3 colorectal cancer who had surgery to remove tumors, followed by treatment to prevent recurrence, the 1,218 African-American patients had a lower five-year survival rate than their white counterparts, according to researchers, led by Greg Yothers of the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Biostatistical Center in Pittsburgh.

Five years after diagnosis, 72.8 percent of white patients survived cancer, but only 68.2 percent of blacks survived.

Colorectal cancer isn't the only medical condition that disproportionately affects certain races. Black people, for example, have much poorer health outcomes for a number of diseases.

"Across the board, if you look at the 15 leading causes of death in the U.S., blacks have higher death rates than whites in about 12 of them, including heart disease, cancer and stroke," said David Williams, the Norman professor of public health at the Harvard School of Public Health.
Cancer
Heart disease
HIV/AIDS

Diabetes


Osteoporosis


http://abcnews.go.com/Health/diseases-common-minorities/story?id=14722258



----------


Why 7 Deadly Diseases Strike Blacks Most

Health care disparities heighten disease differences between African-Americans and white Americans.

Several deadly diseases strike black Americans harder and more often than they do white Americans.

Fighting back means genetic research. It means changing the system for testing new drugs. It means improving health education. It means overcoming disparities in health care. It means investments targeted to the health of black Americans. And the evidence so far indicates that these investments will pay health dividends not just for racial minorities, but for everyone.

Yet we're closer to the beginning of the fight than to the end. Some numbers:

    Diabetes is 60% more common in black Americans than in white Americans. Blacks are up to 2.5 times more likely to suffer a limb amputation and up to 5.6 times more likely to suffer kidney disease than other people with diabetes.
    African-Americans are three times more likely to die of asthma than white Americans.
    Deaths from lung scarring -- sarcoidosis -- are 16 times more common among blacks than among whites. The disease recently killed former NFL star Reggie White at age 43.
    Despite lower tobacco exposure, black men are 50% more likely than white men to get lung cancer.
    Strokes kill 4 times more 35- to 54-year-old black Americans than white Americans. Blacks have nearly twice the first-time stroke risk of whites.
    Blacks develop high blood pressure earlier in life -- and with much higher blood pressure levels -- than whites. Nearly 42% of black men and more than 45% of black women aged 20 and older have high blood pressure.
    Cancer treatment is equally successful for all races. Yet black men have a 40% higher cancer death rate than white men. African-American women have a 20% higher cancer death rate than white women.

http://www.webmd.com/hypertension-high-blood-pressure/features/why-7-deadly-diseases-strike-blacks-most#1


--------------------------------


A Genetically Engineered Live Attenuated Vaccine of Coccidioides posadasii Protects BALB/c Mice against Coccidioidomycosis

 2007

ABSTRACT

Coccidioidomycosis (also known as San Joaquin Valley fever) is an occupational disease. Workers exposed to outdoor dust which contains spores of the soil-inhabiting fungus have a significantly increased risk of respiratory infection. In addition, people with compromised T-cell immunity, the elderly, and certain racial groups, particularly African-Americans and Filipinos, who live in regions of endemicity in the southwestern United States have an elevated incidence of symptomatic infection caused by inhalation of spores of Coccidioides posadasii or Coccidioides immitis. Recurring epidemics and escalation of medical costs have helped to motivate production of a vaccine against valley fever. The major focus has been the development of a defined, T-cell-reactive, recombinant protein vaccine. However, none of the products described to date have provided full protection to coccidioidal disease-susceptible BALB/c mice. Here we describe the first genetically engineered, live, attenuated vaccine that protects both BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice against coccidioidomycosis.

http://iai.asm.org/content/77/8/3196.full

---------------------------

Who Gets Lupus

It has been estimated that lupus affects 1.5 million Americans, and millions more worldwide.

Although the cause of lupus is unknown, genetics and hormones are thought to play a role.
Ninety percent are young women

The majority of people with lupus—90 percent—are female, and most first develop signs and symptoms of the illness between the ages of 15 and 44.

As adults, far fewer males than females develop lupus.

The scenario is much different under age 18 and over age 50, when as many males as females have the disease.

Many men struggle with the idea that they have a “woman’s disease,” in fact the diagnosis has no connection to manliness. Find out more about lupus in men
Lupus discriminates against African American, Latina, and Native American women

African-American women are three times more likely than Caucasian women to get lupus and develop severe symptoms, with as many as 1 in every 250 affected.

And the disease is two times more prevalent in Asian-American and Latina women than it is in Caucasian women. Women of  Native American descent are also disproportionately affected.

The famous Lupus in Minorities: Nature Versus Nurture (LUMINA) study—a large multi-ethnic, multi-regional, and multi-institutional examination of lupus begun in 1993—found that genetic and ethnic factors are more important than socioeconomic ones in influencing disease activity.

The study tracked death, damage, disability, and disease activity.

The results also suggest that there are probably other genetic factors affecting the presentation of the disease in the African-American and Latino communities.

The researchers have published numerous papers reporting study findings on the relative contribution of genetic and socioeconomic factors on the course and outcome of lupus in Latinos, African Americans, and Caucasians.

LUMINA findings include:

    African-Americans and Latinas with lupus tend to develop the disease earlier in life, experience greater disease activity such as kidney problems, and, overall, have more complications than Caucasian patients.
    Latinas had a poorer prognosis overall than Caucasian women, were more likely to have kidney involvement and damage, and showed a more rapid rate of kidney failure.
    African-Americans have a higher frequency of neurological problems such as seizures, hemorrhage, and stroke.
    Latinas experience a higher level of cardiac disease.

What have we learned from a 10-year experience with the LUMINA (Lupus in Minorities; Nature vs. nurture) cohort? Where are we heading? Read the PubMed abstract


http://www.lupusny.org/about-lupus/who-gets-lupus


-----------------------------

Ethnicity-Related Skeletal Muscle Differences Across the Lifespan

Jan, 2010

Abstract

Despite research and clinical significance, limited information is available on the relations between skeletal muscle (SM) and age in adults, specifically among Hispanics, African Americans (AA), and Asians. The aim was to investigate possible sex and ethnic SM differences in adults over an age range of 60 years. Subjects were 468 male and 1280 female adults (=18 years). SM was estimated based on DXA-measured appendicular lean-soft tissue using a previously reported prediction equation. Locally weighted regression smoothing lines were fit to examine SM trends and to localize age cutoffs; piecewise multiple linear regression models were then applied, controlling for weight and height, to identify age cutoffs for sex-specific changes in SM among the ethnic groups. The age of 27 years was identified for women and men as the cut-off after which SM starts to show a negative association with age. Both sexes had a similar ethnic pattern for expected mean SM at the age cutoff, with AA presenting the highest SM values, followed by Whites, Hispanics, and Asians. After the age cutoffs, the lowering of SM differed by ethnicity and sex: AA women showed the greatest SM lowering whereas Hispanic women had the least. Hispanic men tended to show a higher negative association of SM with age followed by AA and Whites. To conclude, significant sex and ethnic differences exist in the magnitude of negative associations of SM with age >27 years. Further studies using a longitudinal design are needed to explore the associations of ethnicity-related decline of SM with health risks.


 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2795070/


-----------




Not Politically Correct

Human Biodiversity, IQ, Evolutionary Psychology, and Evolution


https://notpoliticallycorrect.me/2016/10/19/blacks-are-not-stronger-than-whites/



--------------------------------


Race and health

 Race and health refers to the relationship between individual health and one's race and ethnicity. Differences in health status, health outcomes, life expectancy, and many other indicators of health in different racial and ethnic groups is well documented, referred to as health disparities. Race is a complex concept, and the two major competing theories of race use biological definitions and social construction to define racial difference. Although this relationship can vary depending on the definitions used, race is generally used in the context of health research as a fluid concept to group populations of people according to various factors that include but are not limited to ancestry, social identity, visible phenotype, and genetic makeup. Determinants of health include environmental, social, and genetic factors, as well as the person's individual characteristics and behaviors.


 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Race_and_health


------------------------------------


Inequality in disease

 While rates of incidence for many diseases vary based on biological factors and inheritable characteristics, a larger disparity, which cannot be explained by biological factors, exists in disease rates among varying racial and socioeconomic groups in the United States (for example, lower-income African-Americans and upper-class Caucasians). This suggests that social and economic factors play a role in determining who acquires certain diseases in the United States. For example, heart disease is the most dangerous disease in America, followed closely by cancer, with the fifth most deadly being diabetes. The general risk factors associated with these three diseases include obesity and poor diet, tobacco and alcohol use, physical inactivity, and access to medical care and health information. While some of these risk factors are individual health choices, all of them are also correlated with socioeconomic factors, such as gender, race, income, environment, and education, and consequently, a person’s likelihood for developing heart disease, cancer, or diabetes is in part correlated with these social factors. Men are more likely than women to die from heart disease. Likewise, African-Americans and other racial minorities have higher mortality rates from heart disease, cancer, and diabetes than their white counterparts. Among all racial groups, individuals who are impoverished or low income, have lower levels of educational attainment, and live in lower-income neighborhoods are all more likely to develop heart disease, cancer, and diabetes.


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inequality_in_disease


-----------------------------


Environmental racism


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_racism


-----------------


Beauty Products Marketed to Black Women May Contain More Hazardous Chemicals: Report

 Dec 06, 2016


Beauty and hair products marketed to black women are more likely to contain potentially harmful chemicals and ingredients, according to a new report from a nonprofit environmental research group.


http://time.com/4591079/beauty-products-marketed-to-black-women-may-contain-more-hazardous-chemicals-report/



--------------------


Prenatal Exposure To Flame Retardants Linked With Lower IQ In Children

A risk found to be greater than lead exposure

 August 9, 2017

https://www.infowars.com/prenatal-exposure-to-flame-retardants-linked-with-lower-iq-in-children/

---------------

For more information on toxins in food and cosmetics, view our book titled "The DuPont Investigation" - DuPontInvestigation.Blogspot.com

----------


Secret World War II Chemical Experiments Tested Troops By Race

 June 22, 2015


As a young U.S. Army soldier during World War II, Rollins Edwards knew better than to refuse an assignment.

When officers led him and a dozen others into a wooden gas chamber and locked the door, he didn't complain. None of them did. Then, a mixture of mustard gas and a similar agent called lewisite was piped inside.

"It felt like you were on fire," recalls Edwards, now 93 years old. "Guys started screaming and hollering and trying to break out. And then some of the guys fainted. And finally they opened the door and let us out, and the guys were just, they were in bad shape."



Edwards was one of 60,000 enlisted men enrolled in a once-secret government program — formally declassified in 1993 — to test mustard gas and other chemical agents on American troops. But there was a specific reason he was chosen: Edwards is African-American.

"They said we were being tested to see what effect these gases would have on black skins," Edwards says.


http://www.npr.org/2015/06/22/415194765/u-s-troops-tested-by-race-in-secret-world-war-ii-chemical-experiments


-----------------------------



Watch: Racists Caught Putting Poison In Vaccines

 

Americans must come together to fight against all oppression

 

Infowars.com - August 14, 2017

 https://www.infowars.com/watch-racists-caught-putting-poison-in-vaccines/


-----------------------------



Black Babies being ‘Disproportionately Affected’ by MMR Vaccine Autism


 11/07/2015


http://vaxxter.com/black-babies-being-disproportionately-affected-by-mmr-vaccine-autism/


--------------------------

The Depo Provera shot exposed! Present day eugenics

 The Depo Provera has proven side effects that the FDA overlook and target non whites with this product

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YDqHtPtTmjI

-------



New Documentary Alleges CDC Withheld Proof of Link Between Vaccines and Autism in Black Boys


 Jan 26, 2016

A controversial scientist says the data was omitted from an official CDC report a decade ago. The agency says the link doesn't exist.


There has long been a debate about the link between vaccinations and autism, beginning with a now widely discredited study from British medical researcher Andrew Wakefield. Now, a new documentary from TruthInMedia.com alleges that not only is there a link, but that the Centers for Disease Prevention and Control (CDC) covered it up.
In 2014, CDC doctor William Thompson sent Congress paperwork that he said was proof that the agency withheld data that suggested that Black boys who received the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine before the age of 36 months were at increased risk of developing autism. The CDC maintains that there was not enough data to draw race-based conclusions, and Snopes.com has an extensive post meant to debunk Thompson’s claims.
 https://www.colorlines.com/articles/new-documentary-alleges-cdc-withheld-proof-link-between-vaccines-and-autism-black-boys

-----

Is Swine Flu A Race-Specific Virus?

April 29, 2009


First death in U.S. is Mexican toddler, prompting questions about why only hispanics have died despite outbreak spreading to at least ten countries.


The first swine flu death in the United States has been confirmed, but the victim is a Mexican toddler who caught the illness in Mexico before traveling to Texas. Serious questions must now be asked about why a virus that has spread across at least 10 countries and is suspected in many others has only killed hispanics, and whether a race-specific bio-weapon is being beta-tested.


https://www.prisonplanet.com/is-swine-flu-a-race-specific-virus.html


-----


Can genes be patented?

A gene patent is the exclusive rights to a specific sequence of DNA (a gene) given by a government to the individual, organization, or corporation who claims to have first identified the gene. Once granted a gene patent, the holder of the patent dictates how the gene can be used, in both commercial settings, such as clinical genetic testing, and in noncommercial settings, including research, for 20 years from the date of the patent. Gene patents have often resulted in companies having sole ownership of genetic testing for patented genes.

On June 13, 2013, in the case of the Association for Molecular Pathology v. Myriad Genetics, Inc., the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that human genes cannot be patented in the U.S. because DNA is a "product of nature." The Court decided that because nothing new is created when discovering a gene, there is no intellectual property to protect, so patents cannot be granted. Prior to this ruling, more than 4,300 human genes were patented. The Supreme Court's decision invalidated those gene patents, making the genes accessible for research and for commercial genetic testing.

The Supreme Court's ruling did allow that DNA manipulated in a lab is eligible to be patented because DNA sequences altered by humans are not found in nature. The Court specifically mentioned the ability to patent a type of DNA known as complementary DNA (cDNA). This synthetic DNA is produced from the molecule that serves as the instructions for making proteins (called messenger RNA).


 https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/primer/testing/genepatents


----------------

How did patenting cause conflicts within the Human Genome Project?

Some scientists involved in the Human Genome Project upset the collaborative nature by trying to patent sections of the DNA sequence for their own financial gain.

Despite the collaborative atmosphere established during the years of the Human Genome Project?, it was not without its conflicts and disagreements.

Some scientists displayed differing ideas that threatened the progress of the project. Many were keen to achieve the scientific recognition of making an important discovery whilst also wanting to accommodate the needs of their corporate partners and make money!

    “Through patenting, companies could gain ownership over specific sequences of DNA or genes.

Patenting was one way individuals were able to make commercial profit from the Human Genome Project. Through patenting?, companies could gain ownership over specific sequences of DNA? or genes?. This meant the company would have full rights over that sequence, allowing them to decide who can profit from carrying out research on it (and how much they charge them to access it) and how much to charge individuals wanting to be tested for those genes.


 http://www.yourgenome.org/stories/how-did-patenting-cause-conflicts-within-the-human-genome-project


----------------


Chinese Scientists Genetically Modify Human Embryos—Again

 4/8/16

Just one year after scientists in China made history by modifying the DNA of human embryos, a second team of Chinese researchers has done it again. Using CRISPR/Cas9, the researchers introduced HIV-resistance into the embryos, showcasing the tremendous potential for gene-editing.

In that earlier work, the Chinese scientists modified a gene responsible for a fatal blood disorder, but the embryos were quickly destroyed after the experiment. It was a watershed moment in biotechnology, showcasing the tremendous potential of CRISPR—a powerful gene editing tool—to alter our offspring at the genetic level. Should this technology ever reach the clinical stage, it could be used to eliminate all sorts of genetic diseases, but it could also be used to introduce entirely new capacities.


 http://gizmodo.com/chinese-scientists-genetically-modify-human-embryos-aga-1769884160


-----

Massive DNA Collection Campaign in Xinjiang, China

https://soylentnews.org/article.pl?sid=17/05/26/0254237&from=rss


-------


GOP Bill Would Allow Genetic Testing Demands By Employers
It Might Soon Be Legal for Employers to Force You Into a Genetic Test

Mar 10, 2017


http://fortune.com/2017/03/10/genetic-testing-workplace-wellness-bill/

--------


Employees who decline genetic testing could face penalties under proposed bill

 March 11, 2017


http://www.journalnow.com/news/local/employees-who-decline-genetic-testing-could-face-penalties-under-proposed/article_ec4136ca-650a-5ecd-9963-f5fb91acf1d4.html


--------------


 Completely unconstitutional bill proposes forced genetic screening for employees


https://voat.co/v/pizzagate/comments/1710447


---------------------



Bill S-201: Liberal Backbenchers Defy Trudeau To Approve Genetic Testing Bill


OTTAWA — Liberal backbenchers have defied Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, voting in favour of a bill that would bar health and life insurance companies from forcing clients to disclose the results of genetic testing.

Just hours before the vote late Wednesday in the House of Commons, Trudeau said the proposed law is unconstitutional because it intrudes on provincial jurisdiction. He recommended that MPs vote against it.

But most Liberal backbenchers, along with Conservative and New Democrat MPs, ignored Trudeau's warning. The bill passed by a vote of 222-60.

It was a free vote, meaning Liberal backbenchers were not required to toe the party line. They did, however, come under pressure from the government, including Trudeau.


 http://www.huffingtonpost.ca/2017/03/08/trudeau-bill-s-201-unconstitutional-_n_15246810.html



-----------------


{Many say that genetic testing is being done for several reasons, such as the government wanting to have your DNA, and for Obamacare or health insurance companies to have your information as well. This is also being done, because the government would like to also be able to do more scientific research, with many of these chemicals, including pollution being introduced in our society, and that can even change your DNA over a period of time. If your DNA can change or mutate, then you would think that the government would want to have an update on your DNA. Many claim that evolution in animals is caused by a DNA mutation, this can be a good thing. DNA mutations can also be bad, and can lead to health problems, including cancer. Radiation can even cause a mutation in the DNA of different organisms. Many say that one of the goals of many of these agencies such as MI5 and other security agencies, is to master the genetic coding, sequence and structure of DNA, through various techniques, including with genetic modification. To many, DNA is considered one of the great mysteries in our universe and even a miracle of life. Many even talk how the government wants everyone's DNA, in order to have a database to track people. You can even put DNA in a database, for drones to find people with just pointing a lazer at you, to identify you, and even harm or detain an individual. Some question if this is being done to verify certain races of people as well.}


-------

Russia 'collects DNA samples' of Muslim women

2013

Saliva samples of conservative women taken in wake of spate of suicide attacks in run-up to Sochi Winter Olympics.

 http://www.aljazeera.com/news/europe/2013/10/russia-collects-dna-samples-muslim-women-2013103181444480202.html




-----------------------


Your DNA Changes

 https://www.genisyss.com/dna-changes/


Many people are not aware that their DNA changes over time. Because DNA can be used for identification purposes, people assume that it remains the same over the course of their life. Although the pattern of the nucleotides (AGCT) doesn’t change, a process called DNA methylation describes the important changes that can occur and have been associated with the appearance of various medical conditions. An entire field of science, epigenetics, studies DNA and how it chemically changes. Every day, we encounter numerous factors that change our DNA including the sun’s radiation, pollution, chemicals in our foods and surroundings, and even stress. These DNA changes contribute to the expression of genetic and lifestyle-linked diseases including heart disease, cancer, diabetes, autism and a long list of others. Many of these diseases are incurable, but with the rapid progress that genetic research is making, this is changing. Already, DNA is being used therapeutically, and its usage is becoming an integral part of precision medicine. Stem cell research has identified ways to deliver therapeutic DNA to specific sites in your body. DNA is central to disease prevention and treatment.


---------------------


Isolated populations and complex disease gene identification

 200

             Table 1


































Recent genetic studies of complex diseases and traits in special populations

Complex disease/trait
Gene/locus
Population/isolate
Reference
Affective disorders
Several loci
Northern Sweden

Asthma
IRAK-M (interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase M)
Sardinia

Asthma
CHI3L1 (chitinase 3-like 1)
Hutterites

Asthma
NPSR1 (neuropeptide S receptor 1)
Finland

Atrial fibrillation
4q25
Iceland

Bipolar disorder
5q31-34
Antioquia (Colombia), Central Valley of Costa Rica

Bone mineral density
Several loci
Iceland

Breast cancer
5p12, 2q35, 16q12
Iceland

Myocardial infarction
9p21
Iceland

Coronary heart disease
8p22
French Canadians

Crohn's disease
Several loci
French Canadians

Fasting glucose levels
G6PC2 (glucose-6-phosphatase, catalytic, 2)/ABCB11 (ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B (MDR/TAP), member 11) region
Finland, Sardinia

Exfoliation glaucoma
LOXL1 (lysyl oxidase-like 1)
Iceland

Height
Several loci
Iceland

Height
GDF5 (growth differentiation factor 5)/UQCC (ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase complex chaperone) locus
Finland, Sardinia, Amish

Nicotine dependence and smoking-related diseases
15q24
Iceland

Obesity
FTO (fat mass and obesity associated), PFKP (phosphofructokinase, platelet)
Sardinia

Parkinson's disease
GBA (β-glucocerebrosidase)
Ashkenazi Jews

Pigmentation
Several genes
Iceland

Prostate cancer
Xp11.22, 2p15, 17q
Iceland

Psychotic and bipolar spectrum disorders
TSNAX (translin-associated factor X)/DISC1(disrupted in schizophrenia 1) locus
Finland

Psychosis
TGIF (TGFB-induced factor)
Central Valley of Costa Rica

Schizophrenia
DRD2 (dopamine D2 receptor)
Basques

Type 2 diabetes
CDKAL1 (CDK5 regulatory subunit associated protein 1-like 1)
Iceland

 https://genomebiology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/gb-2008-9-8-109




---------------------- -


Finnish heritage disease

Finnish heritage diseases include:

    APECED (autoimmune polyendocrinopathy—candidiasis—ectodermal dystrophy)
    Aspartylglucosaminuria, a lysosomal storage disease
    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
    Congenital nephrotic syndrome, a kidney disease of newborn babies
    Congenital chloride diarrhea
    Congenital stromal corneal dystrophy
    GRACILE syndrome
    Lethal arthrogryposis with anterior horn cell disease
    Lethal congenital contracture syndrome 1
    Meretoja syndrome
    Meckel syndrome
    Myotonia congenita
    Nonketotic hyperglycinemia
    Salla disease, a lysosomal storage disease
    PEHO syndrome
    Rapadilino syndrome
    Retinoschisis
    Usher syndrome

Three rare causes of dwarfism are included in the Finnish heritage: cartilage–hair hypoplasia, diastrophic dysplasia and Mulibrey nanism.

Four genetically distinct subtypes of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis are found in the Finnish heritage: CLN1, CLN3, CLN5, and CLN8. Names for conditions associated with these subtypes include infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, Jansky–Bielschowsky disease and northern epilepsy syndrome. As of 2001, CLN5 and CLN8 had been reported almost exclusively in Finland.

Meckel syndrome type 1 (MKS1[10]), a lethal condition, is known in 48 Finnish families.
Other genetic diseases

The European Organization for Rare Diseases (EURORDIS) estimates that there are between 5,000 and 7,000 distinct rare diseases, affecting between 6% and 8% of the population of the European Union. The majority of genetic diseases reported in Finland are not part of the Finnish disease heritage and their prevalence is not higher in Finland than worldwide.

Some genetic diseases are disproportionately rare in Finns. These include cystic fibrosis and phenylketonuria. In Finland, about 1 in 80 persons are carriers of a cystic fibrosis mutation, compared with an average of 1 in 25 elsewhere in Europe.


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Finnish_heritage_disease


----------------------------------


Finland's Fascinating Genes

 April. 2005

The people in this land of lakes and forests are so alike that scientists can filter out the genes that contribute to heart disease, diabetes, and asthma

 http://discovermagazine.com/2005/apr/29-finlands-fascinating-genes


-----


Unique disease heritage of the Dutch-German Mennonite population.

 April 15, 2008


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18348259


--------



 Molecular diagnosis of some common genetic diseases in Russia and
the former USSR: present and future.


1993


 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1016272/pdf/jmedgene00004-0055.pdf



-----------


Prevalences of hereditary diseases in different populations of Russia

 Sep 2007


 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1134/S1022795407090104



---------



The Vikings and Baron Dupuytren's disease

Oct, 2001


Dupuytren’s disease (DD) is an ancient affliction of unknown origin. It is defined by Dorland as shortening, thickening, and fibrosis of the palmar fascia producing a flexion deformity of a finger. Tradition has it that the disease originated with the Vikings, who spread it throughout Northern Europe and beyond as they traveled and intermarried. After being present for hundreds of years, DD was named in the 19th century after a famous French surgeon, who was not the first to describe it. This article reviews the history of DD and describes its incidence, clinical manifestations, and treatment.


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1305903/



----------


Vikings could be to blame for why Scots have highest levels of multiple sclerosis in the world, say scientists

December 10, 2012

    Study found one in every 170 women in the Orkney Islands suffers from multiple sclerosis
    It is the highest rate in the world and has been linked with their Norse ancestry
    Scientists say Vitamin D deficiency could also be to blame


http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-2245978/Vikings-blame-Scots-highest-levels-multiple-sclerosis.html



---------


Human genetics: lessons from Quebec populations.

 2001


 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11701644

---------


Hereditary disorders in the French Canadian population of Quebec. I. In search of founders.

1994


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8194844


--------


Europe's most common genetic disease is a liver disorder

Feb 6, 2012


https://www.embl.de/aboutus/communication_outreach/media_relations/2008/080205_heidelberg/



-----------


Ethnicity and adverse drug reactions

Personalised drug treatment is getting closer but will not replace good clinical judgment

May 2006

Whether ethnicity is an important contributor to the variable outcome of drug treatment is still a matter of debate. Research evidence on such associations is limited in quantity and variable in quality. Too often patients' ethnicity is classified by using poorly defined criteria or an inadequate scientific basis. Indeed, both skin colour and self identification of ethnic origin seem to be poorly correlated with molecular genetics, and most genetic variability is found within, rather than among, continental populations. In addition, ethnic differences in drug response might originate from cultural or environmental factors.


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1463978/


--------


Lupus in AfroCaribbeans and Other Ethnic Groups


1997


http://www.lupus-support.org.uk/Ethnic.htm


-------



 The HPV Vaccine and the Case for Race-Based Medicine


Nov 1, 2013


The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, approved in 2006, protects against strains of the virus responsible for 70% of cervical cancers. But what about the remaining 30%?

It turns out that those strains circulate more frequently among African-American and non-white Hispanic women, meaning that even if they are properly immunized, these populations aren’t protected against the sexually transmitted virus and the cancer it can cause...


http://healthland.time.com/2013/11/01/the-hpv-vaccine-and-the-case-for-race-based-medicine/

--------


Study: Whites with muscular dystrophy live up to 12 years longer than blacks

Sep 13, 2010

Whites with muscular dystrophy live up to 12 years longer than their African American counterparts, according to a study published Monday in Neurology.

Although medical advancements over a period of 20 years increased the life span of patients with the debilitating muscle disease, those improvements haven’t been equal among different groups.White women with muscular dystrophy had a median death age of 63, versus 51 for African American women.  For men, their median age at death was 33, versus 23 for African American males.


http://thechart.blogs.cnn.com/2010/09/13/study-whites-with-muscular-dystrophy-live-up-to-12-years-longer-than-blacks/



------


Health Disparities in Hormone Disorders

Oct 2013

What are health disparities?

Health disparities refer to unequal health status or health care between groups of people due to differences in their background, physical traits, or their environment. Group differences include race/ethnicity, country of origin, sex, income, and disability. These and other differences can affect how often people in a group get a disease, how sick they are, and their chance of dying from the disease. Some people may not be able to get good health care or have the opportunity to make healthy lifestyle choices.

Unfortunately, health disparities affect large and diverse groups of people. They exist for many types of illnesses, including endocrine (hormone) disorders and diseases.

Type 2 diabetes

Compared with white adults, minority adults are more likely to

    Develop type 2 diabetes
    Have diabetic complications such as diabetes eye disease and kidney disease
    Die from diabetes


Gestational diabetes

Women who have new diabetes during pregnancy are more apt to develop type 2 diabetes later. Gestational diabetes is more common in Hispanics, Asians, and Native Americans than in whites or blacks. Yet, for some reason, black women who do get this type of diabetes are even more likely to develop type 2 diabetes than women of other races. This holds true even when the groups have the same body mass index, or BMI (a measure of body size).


Osteoporosis

Fracture frequency: Fractures (broken bones) due to the bone-thinning disease osteoporosis are more common in white women than minorities. Yet black women are more likely to die than white women after breaking a hip. This may be because blacks are older and more often have other severe health problems at the time of fracture.

Gaps in diagnosis and treatment: Compared with whites, black women who had a fracture are less likely to receive a diagnosis of osteoporosis. And if they are at risk for fracture, black women receive preventive osteoporosis medicine less often than whites do.
Low vitamin D

A shortage of vitamin D in the body worsens bone health and may raise the risk for some other diseases. Low vitamin D is a common problem among all races and ethnic groups, but blacks have lower vitamin D levels than others. There likely are many reasons for blacks’ higher risk for vitamin D shortage. One reason is their dark skin lessens their ability to make vitamin D from the sun. Compared with whites, blacks also tend to have less intake of vitamin D from supplements and their diet.




 http://www.hormone.org/hormones-and-health/scientific-statements/health-disparities


--------------------------


Study Links Disparities in Pain Management to Racial Bias

 April 04, 2016

https://news.virginia.edu/content/study-links-disparities-pain-management-racial-bias


------------------------------


The Impact of Race or Ethnicity in Crohn's Disease


Edward V. Loftus, Jr., M.D.

Professor of Medicine

Mayo Clinic

Rochester, Minnesota, USA


Caucasians, especially northern European

ancestry


Scandinavia


Northern Europe


British Isles



United States and Canada



Increased risk in Jews


Uncommon in African Americans and other racial minorities in U.S.

http://www.gihealthfoundation.org/GI_news_and_library/library/ppts/IBD/impactofraceethnicity.pdf



-------------


How Does Race Affect COPD?

 Oct 8, 2015


 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD) is one of the many chronic lung diseases that can leave sufferers struggling to breathe. It is the fourth leading cause of death in the United States, and while it is estimated that 12.7 million people have COPD, it is also assumed that there is a vast number of individuals with COPD who are not diagnosed. Many of the individuals who are undiagnosed may not fit into the majority racial profile. Currently, there are more Caucasian individuals diagnosed with COPD than those of African decent—despite newer research showing that the gap may not actually be significant. By having a larger volume of white individuals diagnosed with COPD, scientists previously accepted the notion that white individuals are more susceptible to COPD than black individuals. Surprisingly, new research refutes this finding as African American individuals are more likely to receive a COPD diagnosis at a younger age and with less of a cumulative-smoking background, or less years with first-hand smoke.  Theoretically, this supports the idea that African Americans are more susceptible to COPD. With findings pointing in different directions, scientists are baffled by the potential connection between COPD and race.


https://lunginstitute.com/blog/how-does-race-affect-copd/



--------------


Genetics and Genomic Medicine in Colombia

Mar 5, 2015


Genetic Disorders in Colombia

We have evidence from the pre-Columbian era on the recognition of certain disorders from the Tumaco-La Tolita culture, a group of Amerindians settled in what is now the Colombian and Ecuador coast circa the year 600 bc. A collection of clay figurines have preserved in incredible detail the representation of what are thought to be prevalent genetic syndromes in the population at that time, such as: Morquio, Down syndrome, and Treacher-Collins


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4367080/


---------------------------------


Medical genetics and genomic medicine in Chile: opportunities for improvement

 14 July 2015


http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/mgg3.166/full

----------------------------------


Ethical issues in genetics and public health in Latin America with a focus on Argentina

 July, 2015


http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC4524838/


--------


Rare disease landscape in Brazil: report of a successful experience in inborn errors of metabolism

2016

The LSD Brazil network

A particular group of genetic metabolic conditions—the lysosomal storage diseases, LSDs—has received a disproportionate attention among the IEM, compared to their relative size (there are around 60 LSDs among the 600 IEM), as specific treatments—as enzyme replacement therapies, substrate reduction therapy and molecular chaperones—became available for many of these conditions. As the investigation for LSDs usually follows a relatively different strategy compared to the investigation for the other IEM, we decided to create a separate network:

The NPC Brazil network

As Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease requires for its diagnosis an invasive technical tool, the Filipin staining test performed in fibroblasts, we set up an independent network to deal with the protocol to diagnose this challenging disease.


https://ojrd.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13023-016-0458-3


----------


 Movement disorders in Latin America


June 29, 2005


      Contents

1.

Introduction

....................................................................................126

2.

Idiopathic Parkinson’s disease and parkinsonism

.........................................................127

3.

Dystonia

.......................................................................................127

4.

Tics

..........................................................................................128

5.

Tremor

........................................................................................128

5.1.

Chin tremor .

..............................................................................128

6.

Infectious-parasitic and autoimmune

..................................................................128

6.1.

HIV infection and AIDS

......................................................................129

6.2.

Meningitis . .

..............................................................................129

6.3.

Neurocysticercosis

..........................................................................129

6.4.

Malaria

..................................................................................130

6.5.

Paracoccidioidomycosis

......................................................................130

6.6.

Sydenham’s chorea (SC)

......................................................................130

6.7.

Prion disease

..............................................................................131

6.8.

Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE)

........................................................131

7.

Environmental and lifestyle

.........................................................................132

7.1.

Central and peripheral trauma

..................................................................132

7.2.

Drug-induced movement disorders (DIMD)

........................................................132



7.3.

Exposure to toxins—occupational neurology

.......................................................132

7.4.

The parkinsonism complex of Guadeloupe

.........................................................133

8.

Cerebrovascular disorders

..........................................................................133

9.

Inherited movement disorders .

......................................................................133

9.1.

Huntington’s disease . . .

......................................................................133

9.2.

Spinocerebellar ataxias .

......................................................................134

9.2.1.

SCA3—Machado–Joseph disease

.........................................................134

9.2.2.

SCA 2

.............................................................................134

9.2.3.

SCA 10

............................................................................135

9.2.4.

Other SCAs . . .

......................................................................135


 http://www.neurologia.ufsc.br/wp-content/uploads/2008/08/mdla.pdf


--------------


Medical genetics and genomic medicine in Chile: opportunities for improvement

 July 14, 2015


http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/mgg3.166/full


---------


Latin-Americans with different Native-American ancestry show different health risks

May 26, 2017

A genetic study of Chileans finds Mapuche and Aymara ancestry linked to different diseases


 Latin Americans originate from a mix of people with Native American, European and African ancestry. A new study finds that different types of original Native American ancestry can be associated to different causes of death. Justo Lorenzo Bermejo and Felix Boekstegers from Heidelberg University in Germany, and their Chilean colleagues report these findings in a new study published May 26th, 2017 in PLOS Genetics.


https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2017-05/p-law051817.php


------------


Respiratory diseases in the world


https://www.ersnet.org/pdf/publications/firs-world-report.pdf


-----------

Next generation sequencing: Coping with rare genetic diseases in China

 2016 August


Each year in China, we estimate that there are around 26,000 new DS patients added to the population. This estimate is based on an annual birth rate of 18 million newborn and a disease incidence of DS of 1 in 700 births. Factoring in the life expectancy of DS patients which today is generally over 50 years of age and, adjusting for population growth rate over the last 50 years, we estimate that DS patients alone currently account for around 1.4 million people. After DS, sex chromosomal diseases, such as Turner (45,X), Klinefelter (47,XXY), Triple X syndrome (47,XXX) and Jacob (47,XYY) syndromes have a combined incidence of 1 in 1,000 births (4). With a near normal life expectancy, the number of Chinese individuals with sex chromosome disease syndromes is estimated to exceed 2 million. In a review of chromosome disease incidence in the United Stated (US), it has been estimated that the combined number of patient's with other types of chromosome disease syndromes far exceeds that of DS and sex chromosome disease patients (5). On this basis, we estimate that the number of Chinese patients with rare genetic disease caused by chromosomal abnormalities alone is well over 10 million.


Although monogenic diseases are less prevalent than chromosome diseases, based on population size, they still represent a significant proportion of the overall genetic disease burden in China. On top of the list are blood disorders such as alpha- and beta- Thalassemia, Sickle Cell Anemia (SCA) and Hemophilia, the muscle disorders Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) and Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA), the metabolic disease Phenylketonuria (PKU), the sensory disorder Hereditary Hearing Loss (HHL) and mental disabilities such as Fragile X Syndrome (FXS). In southern China, the incidence rates of alpha-and beta- thalassemia are among the highest in the world, with a combined carrier rate of 11% and 23% in Guangdong and Guangxi provinces respectively (6,7), making thalassemia the number one rare genetic disease in these regions. However, since the average life expectancy is less than 10 years, we estimate that the number of living thalassemia patients in these provinces would not exceed more than 25,000. For the other monogenic diseases mentioned, disease incidence is much lower, ranging from as high as 1 in 3,000 to as low as 1 in 10,000 individuals. Despite the low incidence rate of each individual single gene disease, their combined total still represents a large body of patients in China because of the sheer magnitude of the population size. We estimate that the number of existing patients afflicted with monogenic diseases exceeds well over a million in China.


 http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC4995420/


----------


Prevalence of congenital malformations and genetic diseases in Korea.


 1999


 A nationwide investigation of congenital malformations and genetic diseases in Korea was conducted by analyzing Medical Insurance data for infants aged under 1 year. Medical Insurance data were obtained for 1993 and 1994 and the ICD-9 (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision) code was used to classify the diseases. The coverage rate of medical insurance was approximately 95% of the total population. Anomalies of the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and gastrointestinal systems, in descending order of frequency, were more frequent than anomalies in other systems. The average prevalence of cardiovascular anomalies for 1993 and 1994 was 15 per 1000 infants, and ventricular septal defect, with an average prevalence of about 3.50 per 1000 for 1993 and 1994, was the most frequent cardiovascular anomaly in infants. Polydactyly was the most frequent musculoskeletal anomaly, with an average prevalence, for 1993 and 1994, of about 1.20 per 1000 infants. Anencephaly had the highest frequency of nervous system anomalies. Congenital hypertrophic pyloric stenosis was the most common of the gastrointestinal anomalies. The prevalence of the congenital malformations and genetic diseases examined was similar to that reported in other countries. Total medical expenses for the care of patients with each disease entity were also estimated. The highest medical expenses were incurred for ventricular septal defect, congenital coagulation factor VIII disorders, atrial septal defect, tetralogy of Fallot, and spinal anomalies, in descending order of magnitude. This investigation could be helpful in planning social welfare systems, as well as for elucidating the current status of congenital malformations and genetic diseases in Korea, and in other Asian countries.


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9929974


-----------


The Genome of a Mongolian Individual Reveals the Genetic Imprints of Mongolians on Modern Human Populations

Dec 8, 2014


https://academic.oup.com/gbe/article/6/12/3122/546344/The-Genome-of-a-Mongolian-Individual-Reveals-the


----------

Genetic disease patterns in Japan: a review.

1992

 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1427743


-------------------------



Eugenics in Japan

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eugenics_in_Japan#Abolition_of_eugenics_laws


----------------



 Native Hawaiian and Pacific islander Health Disparities


 http://www.apiahf.org/sites/default/files/NHPI_Report08a_2010.pdf


 -------------


      New insights into ancestry and health of Polynesians and

     New Zealand Mäori

     http://scientists.org.nz/files/posts/justinhodgkiss/NZSR73_1_Chambers.pdf


----------------


Ancient Denisovan DNA excavated in modern Pacific Islanders
Substantial genomic remnants of the extinct Denisovans recovered in Oceania populations

    March 17, 2016

Source:: University of Washington Health Sciences/UW Medicine


--------


{Some people debate if the following theory is correct or not.}


Archaic human admixture with modern humans



Archaic human admixture with modern humans is thought to have taken place through interbreeding between modern humans and Neanderthals, Denisovans, as well as other archaic humans over the course of the Middle Paleolithic.
Neanderthal-derived DNA accounts for an estimated 1–4% of the genome of modern Eurasian populations, but it is significantly absent or uncommon in the genome of most groups in Sub-Saharan Africa. Some researchers have suggested that the observed data might alternatively be explained by ancient subpopulation structure. In modern Oceanian and Southeast Asian populations, there is a relative increase of Denisovan-derived DNA (an estimated 4–6% of the Melanesian genome is derived from Denisovans). In certain modern populations in Africa, there is also evidence for archaic admixture with as yet unidentified hominins.


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archaic_human_admixture_with_modern_humans


------


A World map of Neanderthal and Denisovan ancestry in modern humans

 march 28, 2016

 https://phys.org/news/2016-03-world-neanderthal-denisovan-ancestry-modern.html



-------


This Population Map Will Tell You If You Have Ancient Denisovan Or Neanderthal DNA In Your Genome


 http://www.iflscience.com/editors-blog/interbreeding-denisovans-may-have-contributed-human-male-infertility/

------


Differences in disease frequency between Europeans and Polynesians: directions for future research into genetic risk factors.

March, 2001

 The purpose of this review is to identify complex genetic diseases that might be common in Polynesian ethnic groups because of a high frequency of susceptibility genes. Since a number of Polynesian ethnic groups are descended from recent founder populations, they may be especially suitable for studies designed to identify these genes. We have reviewed the epidemiological literature looking for diseases that i) have a higher frequency in at least two Polynesian groups than in Europeans living in the same geographic areas, ii) are not at high frequency in Polynesia entirely because of high levels of known environmental risk factors, and iii) are known to be inherited in other ethnic groups. Twenty-one diseases fulfilling these three criteria were identified. It may be possible to design studies to identify the genes that cause these diseases in Polynesian ethnic groups.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12017815


-----

How a Powerful Obesity Gene Helped Samoans Conquer the South Pacific


By studying the genomes of more than 5,000 Samoans, researchers have uncovered a single gene that boosts a person’s obesity risk by upwards of 40 percent. Remarkably, this gene—which appears in a quarter of all Samoans—may have arisen in the population as they colonized the South Pacific.

As described in the latest edition of Nature Genetics, this “thrifty” genetic variant, called CREBRF, is associated with a 1.5 percent increase in Body Mass Index (BMI). So, for a person of average height weighing around 180 pounds, this gene corresponds to an extra 10 pounds. As noted by the researchers in their study, CREBRF promotes more efficient storage of fat and features “an effect size much larger than that of any other known common BMI risk variant.”


Working with colleagues from several universities, Stephen McGarvey from Brown University made the discovery while scanning the genomes of thousands of Samoans. This populations has some of the highest obesity rates in the world, a fact that prompted the scientists to conduct a genetic investigation. Around a quarter of all Samoans involved in the study had the genetic variant, which was associated with 30 to 40 percent increased odds of being obese compared to those who don’t have the gene. At the same time, this gene is virtually non-existent in European and African populations and occurs at very low frequencies among East Asians.

“Although we have found a genetic variant with a reasonable biological mechanism, this genetic variant is just one part of the many reasons for the high levels of BMI and obesity among Samoans,” noted McGarvey in a press statement.


 http://gizmodo.com/how-a-powerful-obesity-gene-helped-samoans-conquer-the-1784266550


--------

Asian genetic killer found in Polynesian men

 June 16, 2003


A mysterious genetic disease that kills Asian men in their sleep also affects Polynesians, researchers have discovered.

Known as sudden unexplained death syndrome, or SUDS, it is an inherited disorder that strikes South East Asian men aged 40 to 60 while they sleep. The discovery of SUDS in a new population was announced at the American Heart Association's second Asia Pacific Scientific Forum last week.

Called Lai Thai in Thailand, it rarely affects women. As a result, in some rural Thai villages, men at risk sleep in womens' nightclothes to ward off the 'ghoul' they believe is responsible for killing men during sleep.

But scientists know SUDS is caused by a condition called ventricular fibrillation, when the heart's electrical activity is out of synch, preventing the heart from pumping enough blood to the body.


 http://www.abc.net.au/science/articles/2003/06/16/877742.htm


------

Pacific islanders pay heavy price for abandoning traditional diet

Replacing traditional foods with imported, processed food has contributed to the high prevalence of obesity and related health problems in the Pacific islands. Jane Parry reports.

Scattered across the Pacific Ocean are thousands of islands which make up three regions known as Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia. Beyond the image of white sandy beaches and carefree lifestyles, the Pacific islands are facing serious health problems, the prime culprit being imported foods.


http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/88/7/10-010710/en/

-------------

How does Asian ancestry affect heart disease risk?

 January 19, 2016


The world is picking up the bad habits of Western culture when it comes to health. Lifestyle – especially what you eat and how much you exercise – has a big impact on heart disease. Unfortunately, many people are consuming too many calories and getting too little exercise. Across the globe, people are abandoning their traditional diets and lifestyles and are suffering the consequences.

For reasons that are unclear, Asians and Asian Americans tend to develop diabetes at a lower body mass index (BMI) than Caucasians. People of Asian descent who carry 20 extra pounds are at risk of developing diabetes, whereas Caucasians usually need to carry 40 or more extra pounds before they are at risk. This is true for people of Asian descent regardless of where in the world they live.

The literature indicates that an astonishing 11 percent of Chinese have diabetes. Perhaps even more amazing, 50 percent of Chinese have prediabetes, a condition that typically emerges into diabetes. Out of 1.3 billion human beings, that’s 143 million people with diabetes and 650 million with prediabetes!


http://www.utswmedicine.org/stories/articles/year-2016/heart-disease-asian.html


--------



Leading Causes of Death among Asian American Subgroups (2003–2011)

Methods and Findings

We examined national mortality records for the six largest Asian subgroups (Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese) and non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs) from 2003-2011, and ranked the leading causes of death. We calculated all-cause and cause-specific age-adjusted rates, temporal trends with annual percent changes, and rate ratios by race/ethnicity and sex. Rankings revealed that as an aggregated group, cancer was the leading cause of death for Asian Americans. When disaggregated, there was notable heterogeneity. Among women, cancer was the leading cause of death for every group except Asian Indians. In men, cancer was the leading cause of death among Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese men, while heart disease was the leading cause of death among Asian Indians, Filipino and Japanese men. The proportion of death due to heart disease for Asian Indian males was nearly double that of cancer (31% vs. 18%). Temporal trends showed increased mortality of cancer and diabetes in Asian Indians and Vietnamese; increased stroke mortality in Asian Indians; increased suicide mortality in Koreans; and increased mortality from Alzheimer’s disease for all racial/ethnic groups from 2003-2011. All-cause rate ratios revealed that overall mortality is lower in Asian Americans compared to NHWs.
Conclusions

Our findings show heterogeneity in the leading causes of death among Asian American subgroups. Additional research should focus on culturally competent and cost-effective approaches to prevent and treat specific diseases among these growing diverse populations.

 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4411112/



----------


Rare Autoimmune Disease attacks People of Asian Descent

6-Sep-2012


Newswise — There has been an outbreak of an adult-onset immunodeficiency syndrome in Southeast Asia. The autoimmune disease causes AIDS-like symptoms but is not associated with HIV and is not contagious.

The disease causes patients’ bodies to produce antibodies that attack their own immune systems. Dr. Sarah Browne, a clinical investigator at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases at NIH and the lead author on the study, says that we all have molecules and proteins that tell different immune cells when to start fighting infection. A large number of the patients studied with serious opportunistic infections make an antibody that blocks the function of one of these molecules. The molecule is called interferon-gamma. Without functioning interferon-gamma, people become more susceptible to certain types of infections -- infections people with working immune systems normally don't get. Interferon-gamma is a protein that helps the body fight off infections. In those diagnosed, the immune system has begun treating interferon-gamma as an enemy and makes an autoantibody against it, thus making it an autoimmune condition.

“These findings provide new opportunities to understand the relationship between immunodeficiency and autoimmune diseases, the topic of a recent AARDA-sponsored international symposium,” says Dr. Noel Rose, the director of the Johns Hopkins Autoimmune Disease Research Center.


http://www.newswise.com/articles/rare-autoimmune-disease-attacks-people-of-asian-descent



-----------


Researchers find distinctive patterns of cancer in Asian-Americans

 July 11, 2007


Asian-Americans, both those born in the United States and new immigrants, have distinctive patterns of cancer incidence that doctors should consider when treating them, researchers have found.

A report appearing Wednesday in the journal CA is "one of the most comprehensive summaries of cancer among Asian-Americans," according to the American Cancer Society, which publishes the journal. The report is based on information on cancer cases collected by the state of California from 2000 to 2002 and focuses on five ethnic groups: Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean and Vietnamese. The state has a large Asian population, 3.7 million, and carefully sorts its cancer data by ethnic group.

When all cancers are combined, Asian-Americans actually have lower rates than other groups in the United States. But cancer is still a major cause of death for Asians, killing more of them than heart disease. Different groups appear prone to different types of cancer.

Groups that have been in the United States the longest are likely to develop cancers that are most common there, like breast and colorectal cancer, although their rates are still significantly below those of non-Hispanic whites. The risk of those cancers may be increased by obesity, inactivity, high alcohol intake and diets rich in fat and low in fruits and vegetables, and the rates in Asians seem to rise gradually as they adopt more American habits.


Recent immigrants, by contrast, tend to suffer from the same types of cancer that are predominant in their native countries, like stomach and liver cancer. In developing countries, those cancers are often caused by chronic infections with certain bacteria and viruses that are routinely treated or prevented in the United States.

"I was surprised to see the diversity in cancer among the ethnic groups," said Melissa McCracken, an epidemiologist with the cancer society and the first author of the report. "The group is not homogeneous. Clinicians need to be aware of that and to really extend their scope of attention to cancer due to infectious agents, not just typical chronic conditions."

Among the more striking findings in the report are that Vietnamese men have incidence and death rates from liver cancer that are seven times the rate in non-Hispanic white men, and Korean men and women are 5 to 7 times as likely as whites to develop stomach cancer. Other Asians are also prone to these cancers, but their rates are generally not as high.

The hepatitis B virus is endemic in Asia, McCracken said, and chronic infection is a major cause of liver cancer there and in recent immigrants.


 http://www.nytimes.com/2007/07/11/health/11iht-cancer.4.6617221.html



-------


10 Top Asian American Health Risks

- The Asian American population has the highest tuberculosis case rate of any ethnic group: 24 times greater than Caucasians. Additionally, 80% of the population in many Asian countries test positive in tuberculin tests, while only 5-10% of the US population test positive.

20% of Asian women older than 50 have osteoporosis and over 50% of them are at risk. Asian American women are at a higher risk for developing osteoporosis compared with Caucasian women.

Asian American women older than 65 have a suicide rate of 11.6 per 100,000—more than double the rate for Caucasian women in that age group. Out of over 2,000 Asian Americans aged 18 or older, 2.7% reported having attempted suicide at some point in their lives and 9.1% of the group reported having had suicidal thoughts.

Lung cancer is the second most prevalent cancer among Asian American men and third among Asian American women. Lung cancer rates among Southeast Asian Americans are 18% higher than among Caucasians and Chinese Americans have the highest death rates for lung cancer among Asian American groups.

Asian Americans are a high –risk group for diabetes type 2. The risk for type 2 diabetes occurs at a lower BMI for Asian Americans compared to other ethnic groups. Additionally, while diabetes was the seventh leading cause of death in the US in 2006, it ranked as the fifth among Asian Americans.

The incidence rates of liver cancer in Asian American groups are 1.7 to 11.3 times higher than the rate among Caucasians. Additionally, Vietnamese American males have the highest incidence rates of liver cancer out of any other group in the US. Asian Americans are three times more likely to die of liver cancer than Caucasians.

Asian American women have one of the highest rates of cervical cancer in the US and Vietnamese American women in particular have an incidence rate five times higher than Caucasian women.


http://goldsea.com/Text/index.php?id=1596


-------------------------



Ethnic Differences in BMI and Disease Risk


The chance of developing diabetes, heart disease, and other weight-related health risks increases with increasing body mass index (BMI). But theres strong evidence that at any given BMI, these health risks are markedly higher in some ethnic groups than others.

The Nurses Health Study, for example, tracked patterns of weight gain and diabetes development in 78,000 U.S. women, to see if there were any differences by ethnic group. All women were healthy at the start of the study. After 20 years, researchers found that at the same BMI, Asians had more than double the risk of developing type 2 diabetes than whites; Hispanics and blacks also had higher risks of diabetes than whites, but to a lesser degree. Increases in weight over time were more harmful in Asians than in the other ethnic groups: For every 11 pounds Asians gained during adulthood, they had an 84 percent increase in their risk of type 2 diabetes; Hispanics, blacks, and whites who gained weight also had higher diabetes risks, but again, to a much lesser degree than Asians. Several other studies have found that at the same BMI, Asians have higher risks of hypertension and cardiovascular disease than their white European counterparts, and a higher risk of dying early from cardiovascular disease or any cause.


 https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/obesity-prevention-source/ethnic-differences-in-bmi-and-disease-risk/


------------------------------


Kidney Disease Most Common In Asian Populations

Researchers have identified five genomic regions that increase susceptibility to IgA nephropathy, a major cause of kidney failure worldwide.


AsianScientist (Apr. 4, 2011) - Researchers have identified five regions in the human genome that increase susceptibility to immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy, a major cause of kidney failure worldwide.

The findings, a result of long-term collaborations among investigators in the United States, Italy, and China, was published in the April issue of Nature Genetics.

The researchers looked at the genes of 3,144 people of Chinese and European ancestry, all of whom have IgA nephropathy. The disease occurs when abnormal IgA antibodies deposit on the delicate filtering portion of the kidney and form tangles. The immune system tries to get rid of the tangles, but the kidneys are caught in the crossfire, further destroying the delicate filters.

Worldwide prevalence of IgA nephropathy appears highest in Asia and southern Europe, and rare in Africans. The frequency of genetic risk variants was similarly highest in Chinese people, intermediate in Europeans and lowest in Africans.

The "beauty" of this study, according to Dr. Rebekah Rasooly, was that nobody had suspected the association of the immune basis of IgA nephropathy with kidney diseases.



https://www.asianscientist.com/2011/04/health/kidney-disease-common-asian-populations/



-------------------------------

Chronic diseases: Asia's emerging health threat

Jan 29, 2013


Two in three deaths worldwide (34.5 million) were from chronic diseases in 2010 - an increase of about eight million between 1990 and 2010, according to the landmark Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 published in The Lancet last month, a collaborative project by nearly 500 scientists from more than 300 institutions in 50 countries..


http://www.scmp.com/lifestyle/health/article/1137943/chronic-diseases-asias-emerging-health-threat


-------------------------------

Inherited metabolic disorders in Thailand.

Aug 2002

 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12403250

---------------------

Genetic Hemoglobin Disorders, Infection, and Deficiencies of Iron and Vitamin A Determine Anemia in Young Cambodian Children

 

 April 2012

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3301994/

------------------


Genetic disorders in a paediatric hospital in Cambodia.

 March 2005

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16096216

-------------------

 Rare Disorders in Malaysia: Rare and Special

http://www.mrds.org.my/2008%20Rare%20Disorders%20MRDS.pdf

------------------

Genetics and genomic medicine in Indonesia

 March 2017

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5370234/

------------------

Indonesia's Many Human Physical Deformities: A Closer Look

 February 6, 2016

http://www.acsh.org/news/2016/02/06/matt-whats-up-in-indonesia

-----------------

 Indonesia lacks qualified doctors, medication to treat rare diseases

 March 8, 2017

 https://www.pressreader.com/indonesia/the-jakarta-post/20170308/281603830260773

----------------

Birth  Defects  In  South-east  Asia 
A  Public  Health  Challenge

http://apps.searo.who.int/PDS_DOCS/B4962.pdf

----------------

 Blood Mercury Reporting in NHANES: Identifying Asian, Pacific Islander, Native American, and Multiracial Groups

 Sep 2005


 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1367827/



----------------


Shift from traditional foods takes toll on Alaska Native populations

2016

 https://www.adn.com/rural-alaska/article/processed-food-comes-diabetes-obesity-alaska-natives/2014/09/29/



---------------


Man-made chemicals blamed as many more girls than boys are born in Arctic

2007

· High levels can change sex of child during pregnancy
· Survey of Greenland and east Russia puts ratio at 2:1

Twice as many girls as boys are being born in some Arctic villages because of high levels of man-made chemicals in the blood of pregnant women, according to scientists from the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (Amap).

The scientists, who say the findings could explain the recent excess of girl babies across much of the northern hemisphere, are widening their investigation across the most acutely affected communities in Russia, Greenland and Canada to try to discover the size of the imbalance in Inuit communities of the far north.


https://www.theguardian.com/world/2007/sep/12/gender.sciencenews


--------------

Health Problems in Chinese Children Are Different


Introduction

"Different race has different face",1 this saying obviously applies to Chinese children, as they do look different from children of other ethnic origins. In fact, many health problems are different in Chinese children also.2-6 Genetic conditions account for some of the differences. Well-known examples can be found in the thalassaemia syndromes which are highly prevalent in southern Chinese,7,8 or cystic fibrosis which is very rare in Chinese,2 although it is the most common chronic lung problem in Caucasians.9

Traditions usually exert major influences on all kinds of child-care practices in the Chinese culture.2-6,10-13 Many medical and health problems demonstrate strong cultural characteristics. As improvement in socio-economic conditions and changes in life-style together with trends towards westernization have occurred in many Chinese communities2,4,5,10,12,13 in recent years, there are associated significant changes of disease pattern in the children also.2,4,10,12,13 Such changes appear to occur in children who have migrated to take up residence in overseas places as well.

This paper reviews some of the documentations and the author's personal observations on the differences commonly identified in children of Chinese origin.


Background

Chinese people comprise of five major ethnic groups,14 viz. Han (?), Man (Manchurians ?), Mong (Mongolians ?), Hwei (Islamics ?), Zhuang (Tibetans ?). Han is the majority. There are many other "ethnic minority groups" whose features sometimes draw some similarities to the people of the bordering countries. For example, a small group in south-western China has some Persian features; a few people in the North-west look Russian. Most of the Manchurians, Mongolians and Hweis have integrated into the Han society and have become indistinguishable from the Hans, from whom most of the reports regarded as Chinese are based.


External Features

At birth, the Chinese infant has a broader face, often with depressed nasal bridge (Table 1).1,2,5,10,15-24 He does not look "yellow", as his skin pigmentation usually takes days, often weeks to establish. More than one in ten infants have up-slanting eyes. One in four has "low-set ears" by Western standard. The head is usually not as elongated as the Caucasians. This could be due to the supine-sleeping position2,12,25,26 resulting in flattening of the occiput rather than an oblong shape assumed by the head lying on its sides from the prone-sleeping posture.

Of the many external features as listed in Table 1, particularly note-worthy are the "Mongolian blue spots" which are present in nearly all newborns.15 These skin patches, many of them can be quite large around the buttocks, persist till 5-6 years old; and such features should not to be mistaken for "child abuse" by the inexperienced. It is interesting also to note that Chinese children born or raised in temperate regions such as North America are generally less pigmented and not as "yellow" as their cousins who live in China.


Child Growth

"Chinese are born small and remain small all through childhood",27-29 this is a common misconception. Such belief was apparently based on observations made in days when the nutritional status and health care facilities were poor. Recent studies conducted in more developed Chinese communities, like Hong Kong, have indicated that both the intra-uterine30 and childhood growth grids are similar if not identical to the National Council of Health Standards (NCHS) curves of U.S.A. These secular changes appear not influenced by previously presumed genetic and ethnic factors as some workers have suggested.

Already Chinese teenagers of Hong Kong in the late 1980s were 4.2 - 6.7 cm taller than those in the late 1960s.31 Similar secular growth trends are occurring in various big cities in Mainland China29,33-35 and Taiwan.36 One study showed that the femur length was shorter,37 and several surveys have shown that Chinese children in certain big cities of North America are shorter and lighter26,38 than the Caucasian-Americans. These findings could be the result of certain traditional feeding practices which have been found to provide less than optimal dietary intake for the growing Chinese children rather than because of their ethnic endowment.


Congenital Abnormalities

Congenital anomalies as listed in Table 3 are some examples quite unique in Chinese. Uncommon occurrences of neural-tube defects50-52 appear to be due to the plentiful vegetables with folic acid in the southern Chinese diet.51 In a study of supplementing women with folic acid in several northern provinces in China, significant reduction of neural tube disorders has resulted.53 Other conditions like meconium ileus and meconium-plug syndrome from cystic fibrosis2,5,6,9 are extremely rare occurrences,5,6 very different from the experience drawn from Europe and North America.

Congenital conditions which are much less common in Chinese also include congenital dislocation of hips (CDH) which was found to be ten times less common compared with the Caucasians,54 pulmonary hypoplasia from renal agenesis and congenital hypertrophic pyloric stenosis.55,56 Strictly speaking, pyloric stenosis is an acquired condition, as most infants only develop symptoms days, sometimes even weeks, after birth. Local experience has indicated its occurrence is on the rise in recent years. If such observation holds true, it may suggest an etiologic relationship to many recently introduced perinatal interventional therapies which may be stressful to the infants, resulting in increased vagal discharges and smooth muscle hypertrophy as a response around the pylorus.

The incidence of congenital heart defects is similar to Caucasians, but the pattern of heart defects is different.57,58 There are more right heart obstructive lesions and less hypoplastic left heart syndrome (Table 4). Cardiovascular defects associated with Chinese children with Down syndrome are also different (Table 4);59 the commonest problem is not atrio-ventricular cushion defect as noted in the western literature but ventricular septal defect. Although the frequency of congenital heart block has not been clearly documented, one might suspect that it would be higher, as there are many more young Chinese women with systemic lupus erythematosis.60,61

Hydrops fetalis due to a-thalassaemia is common.7 4.5% and 4% of a southern Chinese school-age population have been found to be carriers of the a & b thalassaemia genes respectively.8 While infants with hydrops fetalis due to a-thalassaemia either die in-utero or soon after birth, children with b-thalassaemia major usually require monthly blood-transfusions and daily chelation therapy to sustain life. 4.42% boys and 0.45% girls62 were found to be severely deficient in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-P D). Such enzyme defect had accounted for a very high incidence of neonatal jaundice and kernicterus (Figure 1) in the past;63-66 even in older children haemolytic anaemia often occurs in association with an infection, in particular with hepatitis and typhoid fever, or precipitated by an oxidizing agent. Hare-lips and cleft palate which were noted to be more prevalent in Chinese previously49,67 have recently been found to be similar in incidence67 as in other reports.



Conclusion

Chinese children are different from other ethnic people, not only in their look but also in many medical and health conditions. Genetic disorders account for some differences, most of the other conditions appear to be affected by environmental factors and traditional practices. As there are much movements of Chinese people to take up residence in overseas places in recent years, it is important for child care workers to be alerted to some of the unique features of Chinese children to avoid misunderstanding and even possible mis-management


http://www.cchi.com.hk/specialtopic/case3/

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South Asian health issues
Diabetes and heart disease

People in the UK from south Asian communities are about twice as likely to develop diabetes compared with people from white European backgrounds.

South Asian people are also more likely to develop diabetes at a younger age.

Coronary heart disease (CHD) is also more common in south Asian people, as is the risk of dying early from CHD.

Experts aren’t sure why this is the case, but it may be linked to diet, lifestyle and different ways of storing fat in the body.
Children and diabetes

Children of south Asian origin in the UK are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes than white European children.

Weight gain caused by eating traditional foods high in sugar and fat, alongside Western "fast foods", is thought to be a contributing factor, according to Diabetes UK.
Eye health and kidney health

The eye condition acute glaucoma and chronic kidney disease can affect anybody, but people from south Asian communities have a higher risk.

Having diabetes increases the chances of developing kidney disease, and research suggests that diabetes can also raise the risk of glaucoma.


 http://www.nhs.uk/Livewell/SouthAsianhealth/Pages/Overview.aspx


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Bai fu mei: China’s obsession with white skin and ‘trophy’ partners may stem from genetic mutation 15,000 years ago, scientists say

Jan 12, 2016

Men in the country can often seem obsessed with fair skin, especially in a partner, while many women have in the past favoured a Caucasian or “trophy” husband. This has long been dismissed as a social, economic or cultural problem, but new evidence suggests it may stem from a genetic predisposition.

New international study led by Chinese team finds the diverging complexions of Han Chinese and native Africans and Southeast Asians was caused by a mutation of the OCA2 gene 15,224 years ago


For thousands of years, China was ruled by pale-looking nobles in the north, and the invasion of Europeans in its more modern history further added to the perception that a white skin colouring was somehow superior.


But the new study found that the phenomenon could have a biological explanation dating back to prehistoric times as the relatively light skin colouring of the Han Chinese may derive from the same gene held responsible for a number of diseases.


The researchers from China, the United States and Europe analysed genetic samples from more than 1,000 individuals and found that the fairer skin of the Han Chinese in comparison to people from Africa and Southeast Asia was caused by a mutation of the OCA2 gene.

One of the gene’s main functions is to help transport tyrosine, an amino acid used as a raw material in synthesising melanin, a pigment that determines skin colouration .


The mutated version of the gene has been linked to many diseases, such as albinism, acute eye inflammation, Angelman syndrome (characterised by mental disability and jerky movements), learning difficulties and obsessive eating, to name but a few.


The team of researchers were led by Professor Su Bing at the Kunming Institute of Zoology in Yunnan province, and Meng Anming from Tsinghua University in Beijing.

They estimated that the mutated genes which led to the fairer skin of the Han Chinese occurred some 15,224 years ago. This happened after that group’s ancestors migrated up north from Southwest China and Southeast Asia about 25,000 – 30,000 years ago.



This dark colouring would have served as a natural form of defence “against the harmful effects of UV radiation, including protection against sunburn and folate destruction”, according to the team’s paper published in the latest issue of the journal Molecular Biology and Evolution.

But in north China, which experiences less sunshine than other parts of the country, the whiter skin allowed the body to absorb more sunlight to prevent a deficiency of vitamin D. A shortage of this can lead to fragile or brittle bones, cardiovascular problems and cognitive impairments.


According to the laws of natural selection, those with lighter skin were fitter for survival in the new environment. They may also have enjoyed other physical advantages such as being taller with stronger bones and perhaps a greater intelligence, studies show.

Another interesting discovery of the latest study was that the same OCA2 mutation was not detected among Europeans, who also underwent a shift to paler skin after the first modern humans moved out of Africa.

But the evolution of people’s skin colour in Europe took place on a completely different set of genes such as SLC24A5 and SLC45A2, according to other studies.


The genetic difference between Han Chinese and Europeans implied “independent skin-lightening in both East Asians and Europeans”, the scientists said.

But they said other environmental and biological factors could not be ruled out, either.

“Dietary changes and/or sexual selection … may also have created selective pressure in skin lightening,” they wrote.

And that “selective pressure” has shown scant sign of easing up.

A quick pore through a Chinese search engine quickly reveals what many modern Chinese woman aspire to be: Bai-fu-mei. This portmanteau of three Chinese characters - “white”, “rich”, “beautiful” - puts white first, even though in today’s China, wealth is for many the most desirable quality.

A study by market research company Mintel last year found that more than 95 per cent of Chinese women aged 20 to 49 had used facial masks to whiten their face - or three times as many as in Britain.



http://www.scmp.com/tech/science-research/article/1900084/bai-fu-mei-chinas-obsession-white-skin-and-trophy-partners-may

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What genetics reveals about traditional Chinese medicine

January 6, 2017


Impacting genes

Can Chinese medicine impact the human genome, and deliver on its promises? A variety of individual responses to these therapies might be explained by epigenetic influences on gene expression.

    A Korean research team found in mice that stimulating a specific acupuncture point associated with neurostimulation and Parkinson’s disease changed the expression levels of 799 genes. These genes could become biomarkers that indicate changes in neuronal activity and possibly point to treatments for the disease.
    A Chinese group found changes in mRNA and protein expression in mouse lung tissue after stimulation of three acupoints with acupuncture needles. These expression changes appear to affect regulation of macromolecular biosynthesis, transportation and metabolism, the team reported.
    A Taiwanese team analyzing 3,294 medicinal herbs and other compounds found that 36 percent of them worked with histone-modifying enzymes, and one-third of those promoted chromatin condensation, which compacts chromosomes and affects DNA repair and gene expression.

Natural isn’t harmless

Not all traditional medicines are beneficial, however. In fact, any responsible practitioner or specialist will warn that herbal treatments can be hazardous.

Aristolochic acid, which is part of many traditional Chinese preparations for menstrual cramps, rheumatism and (sometimes) weight loss, was also associated with kidney failure and urinary tract cancer, two studies reported.

In addition, traditional Chinese preparations have been found to contain heavy metals and plant toxins. Cases of adverse reactions have been reported, including some deaths. These concoctions are not regulated in either the US or Europe as drugs, but they can have powerful actions by themselves and equally powerful interactions with prescription drugs.

Another issue with Chinese traditional medicines has been identifying the ingredients of any individual herbal preparation. This issue has stemmed from either contaminants or the use of a substitute compound from similar, but not identical, species of plant. Since more than 5,000 species are used for therapies, and most of them are animal- or plant-derived organics, such identification has been difficult. But high-throughput screening and new whole-exome or whole-genome sequencing analysis has permitted scientists to more precisely determine what’s in the mix.


 https://geneticliteracyproject.org/2017/01/06/what-genetics-reveals-about-traditional-chinese-medicine/

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Simple blood test can detect genetic diseases early in pregnancy

 Together, single-gene disorders are more common than Down’s syndrome. Now there’s a safe prenatal test that can help prospective parents decide what to do

 https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg23331074-100-simple-blood-test-can-detect-genetic-diseases-early-in-pregnancy/


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Dysgenics

Dysgenics (rarely cacogenics) is the study of factors producing the accumulation and perpetuation of defective or disadvantageous genes and traits in offspring of a particular population or species.


 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dysgenics


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Eugenics

Eugenicsis a set of beliefs and practices that aims at improving the genetic quality of a human population. The exact definition of eugenics has been a matter of debate since the term was coined by Francis Galton in 1883. The concept predates this coinage, with Plato suggesting applying the principles of selective breeding to humans around 400 BCE.

Frederick Osborn's 1937 journal article "Development of a Eugenic Philosophy] framed it as a social philosophy—that is, a philosophy with implications for social order. That definition is not universally accepted. Osborn advocated for higher rates of sexual reproduction among people with desired traits (positive eugenics), or reduced rates of sexual reproduction and sterilization of people with less-desired or undesired traits (negative eugenics).

Alternatively, gene selection rather than "people selection" has recently been made possible through advances in genome editing, leading to what is sometimes called new eugenics, also known as neo-eugenics, consumer eugenics, or liberal eugenics.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eugenics

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An Expanded View of Complex Traits: From Polygenic to Omnigenic

http://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S0092-8674(17)30629-3


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Chapter 5: The 5 Percent Nation of Islam & Masonry


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{We are calling for the removal of all Muslims and the 5% Nation of Islam members to be removed from Europe and America.}

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Lord Jamar on Jay Z's 5% Chain & White Man Being Devil -

 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7mAD9noJNJ8

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THE TRUTH ABOUT JAY-Z'S SATANIC LEGACY AND 444


 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OEef8jNM6RY


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Jay Z the Luciferian

 https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=jay+z+luciferian

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 Gza & 5% Nation, 2nd Racewars Dream & Obama ! (When I Thought Obama Wasn't The Antichrist) 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aYxPBY4lUNY


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Akbar Muhammad on Clarence 13x Separating From The Nation Of Islam 


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ouYf6uSLT0o

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The Greatest Story Never Told - The Story Of Clarence 13X 


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zbdEF6rsckg

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 Born Mastermind Allah: The Black Physiology War Machine 


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jxIN5n3WQ4c

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120 Lessons & 360 Degrees/Books: Knowledge Of Self 


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uZoDcJdHPds



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Asiatic Blackman World Manifest (Five Percent Nation)


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jAn9qebHYVU

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Mike Tyson speaks on the 5 Percenters 


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aB8aUGoYIFI

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Min Farrakhan speaks on 10% and 5%


 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mtTwy-U7AY4


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Freemasonry Exposed: What Every Christian Should Know


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mJk22JXMRcE



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33 Degree Freemasonry - The Egyptian Christian Mystery Tradition 


 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lbf992P92kQ

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Now Allah 'The Five Percenter' 


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ofyHZjAU_Vo

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Truth or Square 'The Five Percent Nation' 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M1SPfywI1Yw

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True 5%ers, LA first born, Teaching the right way -


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UBq5bkSiimg

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Alex Jones mentioning 360 degrees in Masonry  


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UWLGVjNpuuE

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Who Are The Five Percent | Vintage Wisdom Edition -


 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kWNWtYNQEZs



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BORN KING ALLAH: FIVE PERCENTER NEWSPAPER SAVIOR 2/23/2014


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8sBhNWmiHkc



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120 Lessons & 360 Degrees 5% Nation -

 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-AzzvKLdn9g

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Supreme Mathematics & Supreme Alphabets 'The Five Percent Nation' 


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aLvJCoQQsyE

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Who is the 5%? 


 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jJAX4Jnz6nM

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Muslim Gods, 5 Pretenders, and What Black woman need to do....   


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VR0vq4Z6TTM

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KINGASIATIC ALLAH - Exclusive Interview - Nation of Gods & Earths 


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ke8ScPnMyTk

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God Allah Sha Building on the Basic of the 5% 


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z7onJBj6EJc


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Five Percent Nation Gods and Earths III 


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OhA046fnzas


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CLARENCE 13X & THE FIVE PERCENTERS: A QUICK EXAMINATION


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jeusqGdmghg

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Today's Math: A Five Percenter from Bangladesh 


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ruuLpk6uZ10


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We are NOT Muslims 


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DSCLAdW_1cQ

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 GOD MC RAKIM on being a 5 PERCENTER 


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T8FF0TIT0ho


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'Lord Just' Builds about Five Percenter History (Atlantis Build)


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ex5txzcNrV4


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112116 Who are The Gods and Earths?  


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BKaAySUeNa4


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Five Percenters & Allah U Reality The Real God


 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wZZRmk-DUxI

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CLARENCE 13X aka ALLAH aka CLARENCE SMITH JOWERS of The 5% 


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oBUFZQSen6U



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Bro. C. Freeman-El | I Self Law Am Master (Full Version)


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nHBYfbkepSQ

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Grand Master C. Freeman El: "THE MOOR" 


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d7LTKYAuZ-M

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Bro. C. Freeman El | Esther: Book of the Goddess - Pt. 3/3 


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jR5XgYHhnKI

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Dr. Alim El Bey: FREEMASONRY, MERKABAHS & THE ESOTERIC HUMAN ANATOMY (NEW) -

 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k57mRCWQS-8


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5%ers vs Natural Tehuti


 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pHiD1_37LnQ


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5 Percent Of Nothing 


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lqb2pDKPPs8


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Farrakhan on Five Percent Nation Founder Clarence 13X 


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u1D5kdOie2A

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The NOI's Supreme Wisdom Lessons 


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xzUjwrmNl8k

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112116 Who are The 85%? The 10%? Who are the 5 Percenters? 


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lN0RRq1t5fM


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Race and Reason


http://www.jrbooksonline.com/PDFs/Race_and_Reason.pdf

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View our Second book on Dysgenics called Race Dysgenics - RaceDysgenics.Blogspot.com



{To continue this discussion, view the following articles below.}


Islamic Sharia Law & Genocide - The Middle East Conflict Investigation  - IslamicShariaGenocdie.Blogspot.com

A Donald Trump Investigation 5-11-2016 - Donaldtrumpinvestigation.blogspot.com

Genetically Modified Vaccines Investigated - The Eugenics Investigation  - Gmovaccinesinvestigated.blogspot.com/

Genetically Modified Humans & Viruses Investigated - The Eugenics Investigation -  Gmohumansandviruses.blogspot.com

The DuPont Investigation - Dupontinvestigation.Blogspot.com



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                        For more information on biotechnology, nanotechnology and 
                                genetically modified organisms, view our website 

                                            MonsantoInvestigation.com